Define "determinants of health" for individuals
For individuals: "any event, characteristic or other definable entity, that brings about a change for better or worse in health"
these are normally multi-factorial.
Give some examples of health determinants
• Water, shelter, sanitation • Income
• Housing and neighbourhoods
• Societal characteristics e.g. racism, attitudes to alcohol or violence, value on children
• Autonomy and empowerment - social cohesion
What is the determinants of health frame work?
this is a framework to help identify risk factors and consider levels of intervention. It also recognises that determinants operate at different scales e.g, micro (individual) meso (family) etc.
What do the dashed lines between factors represent?
they represent permeability between factors:
- No arch operates in isolation from the others
- Events at one level may impact on factors at another (higher or lower) level
Define Downstream interventions
These are interventions that operate at the micro (proximo) level, include treatment systems, and disease management.
Define upstream interventions
These are interventions that operate at the macro level, such as government policies and international trade agreements