Bio 102 Final (the biosphere)

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Which of the following proposed research projects would occur at the ecosystem level?

a) Bob Henrickson has proposed studying the changing numbers of burrowing owls at Pawnee National Grasslands in Colorado.
b) Curtis Filson has proposed studying the reproductive patterns of the little brown bat.
c) Paula Krenshaw has proposed studying how polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transferred between organisms living in the desert southwest.
d) Jenny Mathis has proposed studying the western prairie fringed orchid and its insect pollinators.

c) Paula Krenshaw has proposed studying how polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are transferred between organisms living in the desert southwest.

Which statement about the biosphere is true?

a) The biosphere is so immense it cannot be considered finite.
b) A feature of the biosphere is its patchiness.
c) The biosphere is the sum of all of Earth's communities.
d) The biosphere is a closed system.

b) A feature of the biosphere is its patchiness.

The primary source of energy for hydrothermal vent communities is

a) the heat of the water emerging from the vents.
b) oxidation of petroleum compounds in the vent water.
c) oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the vent water.
d) reduction of carbon dioxide in the vent water.

c) oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in the vent water.

While on a walk through a forest, you notice birds in trees, earthworms in the soil, and fungi on plant litter on the forest floor. Based on your observations, you conclude that each of these organisms occupies a different

a) habitat.
b) biosphere.
c) abiome.
d) ecosystem.

a) habitat

The level of ecologic organization that incorporates abiotic factors is the

a) population.
b) ecosystem.
c) species.
d) community.

b) ecosystem

Which of the following could be a topic for a community-level study of a hydrothermal vent ecosystem?

a) the relationships between crabs at the vent and other areas of the ocean
b) the evolution of a certain species of bacteria in response to the changing composition of the water emitted by the hydrothermal vents
c) the composition of the water emitted by hydrothermal vents
d) the interactions between Yeti crabs and other species near hydrothermal vents

d) the interactions between Yeti crabs and other species near hydrothermal vents

In animal populations, DDT causes _____.

a) birth defects
b) tuberculosis
c) sleeping sickness
d) the flu
e) malaria

a) birth defects

DDT is _____-soluble so it accumulates in _____.

a) fat ... milk
b) water ... milk
c) water ... streams
d) fat ... streams
e) water ... oceans

a) fat ... milk

Which one of the following statements is true?

a) DDT does not help prevent disease from passing from agricultural animals to humans.
b) Cost was a major factor in the United States government's decision to ban DDT.
c) Many African governments concluded that the potential long-term health effects of DDT were not as serious as the immediate problem of insect control.
d) DDT cannot accumulate in the fat of animals.
e) The DDT ban in the United States has made it very difficult to control agricultural insect pests.

c) Many African governments concluded that the potential long-term health effects of DDT were not as serious as the immediate problem of insect control.

The immediate results of the widespread use of pesticides and fertilizers included ________, but long-term results included ________.

a) the increased spread of malaria . . . delayed resistance to pesticides
b) terrible declines in agricultural productivity . . . worldwide distribution of DDT
c) global declines in undesirable pests, such as mice, rats, crows, and sharks . . . increases in these pests
d) dramatic increases in crop yields . . . the evolution of pest resistance

d) dramatic increases in crop yields . . . the evolution of pest resistance

Which of the following factors would have the LEAST impact on a deep-sea hydrothermal vent community?

a) solar energy
b) water
c) temperature
d) presence of sulfur bacteria

a) solar energy

Which of the following environmental factors usually has the greatest direct effect on an organism's rate of water loss by evaporation?

a) fires, hurricanes, and tornadoes
b) soil type
c) wind
d) barometric pressure

c) soil type

Which of these is a biotic component of an environment?

a) bacteria on the surface of your skin
b) light
c) the availability of water
d) the mineral supplements you consume
e) the temperature where you live

a) bacteria on the surface of your skin

Desert owls are inactive during the day and active at night. They also have small bodies. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.

a) anatomical
b) behavioral
c) physiological
d) anatomical and behavioral
e) anatomical, behavioral, and physiological

d) anatomical and behavioral

Horned lizards are desert animals that are active during the day. Their skin and kidneys are efficient at conserving water; when they get hot, they move to the shade so they can cool off. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.

a) anatomical
b) behavioral
c) physiological
d) behavioral and physiological
e) anatomical, behavioral, and physiological

e) anatomical, behavioral, and physiological

Cacti are desert plants with C4 metabolism. In addition, cacti bloom at night. This describes _____ adaptation to the hot and dry desert.

a) anatomical
b) behavioral
c) physiological
d) behavioral and physiological
e) anatomical, behavioral, and physiological

d) behavioral and physiological

The adaptations of pronghorns

a) include a reflective coat, an ability to find small pools of water, and chemical defenses against most predators.
b) to the open plains and shrub deserts of North America have helped them spread to nearly every continent.
c) to open country could be a disadvantage in a densely forested environment.
d) demonstrate that meeting the demands of local environmental conditions helps organisms extend their ranges to other types of environments.

c) to open country could be a disadvantage in a densely forested environment.

The greatest annual input and least seasonal variation in solar radiation occurs in the

a) temperate zones.
b) Southern Hemisphere.
c) tropics.
d) polar regions.

c) tropics

If you travel from west to east through Ecuador, you will pass through tundra, taiga, temperate forest, and tropical forest. Which of the following climatic factors remains constant on such a trip?

a) average rainfall
b) maximum temperature
c) day length
d) soil type

c) day length

A sperm whale in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean is in which oceanic zone?

a) benthic
b) intertidal
c) pelagic
d) estuarine

c) pelagic

Except near hydrothermal vents, the communities of the oceanic aphotic zone get their energy mainly from

a) oxidation of sulfur by sulfur bacteria.
b) photosynthesis by local zooplankton.
c) photosynthesis by local phytoplankton.
d) organic matter sinking from the photic zone.

d) organic matter sinking from the photic zone.

Which ocean zone describes the interface between ocean and land?

a) upwelling
b) intertidal
c) abyssal
d) pelagic

b) intertidal

Fresh water and seawater mix in a(n)

a) benthic zone.
b) limnetic zone.
c) littoral zone.
d) estuary.

d) estuary.

Fertilizer runoff contains ________, which are the most important limiting factors for plytoplankton growth.

a) sulfur and magnesium
b) nitrogen and phosphorus
c) oxygen and carbon dioxide
d) carbon and hydrogen

b) nitrogen and phosphorus

Usually, a river ________ at its source compared to farther downstream.

a) flows more slowly
b) is wider
c) is warmer
d) has less phytoplankton

d) has less phytoplankton

Why is the runoff from fertilized agricultural fields, even if free of pesticides, often harmful to the ecosystems of temperate lakes?

a) The runoff causes heavy growth of algae, which eventually die and decompose, causing oxygen depletion.
b) The runoff is acid, and acidification kills key lake organisms.
c) Runoff water pools at the lake's bottom, where the fertilizer compounds react with materials in the sediment to form toxic substances.
d) Fertilizer compounds are toxic to fish.

a) The runoff causes heavy growth of algae, which eventually die and decompose, causing oxygen depletion.

Which of the following statements about biomes, the major terrestrial ecosystems covering the Earth, is true?

a) Each of the ten major biomes is restricted to just one or two continents.
b) The major factors affecting the distribution of biomes are wind and sunlight.
c) Fire is very important in some biomes.
d) Most natural biomes are unaffected by human activity.

c) Fire is very important in some biomes.

Which of the following statements about tropical forests is true?

a) The soils of tropical rain forests are typically rich in nutrients.
b) Tropical forests occur in equatorial regions with very long 16- to 20-hour days.
c) The forest structure consists of distinct layers that provide many different habitats.
d) Once stripped, tropical rain forests regrow quickly, although with slightly less diversity.

c) The forest structure consists of distinct layers that provide many different habitats.

The kind of vegetation in a tropical rain forest is generally determined by the amount of

a) nitrogen in the soil.
b) light.
c) rainfall.
d) minerals in the soil.

c) rainfall.

The major reason for tropical deforestation is

a) governments clearing forests to build cities.
b) natural succession as global warming occurs.
c) people clearing forests to open up land for agriculture.
d) hurricane destruction of large regions.

c) people clearing forests to open up land for agriculture.

The dominant herbivores in savannas are

a) gophers.
b) antelope.
c) giraffes.
d) insects.

d) insects.

Which of the following options correctly pairs a biome and its characteristics?

a) temperate broadleaf forest = mild winters, moderate rainfall, predominantly dicot vegetation
b) chaparral = mild, rainy winters; long, hot, but wet summers
c) tundra = very cold winters; only the upper layer of the soil thaws during summer
d) savanna = long, cold winters, vegetation dominated by conifers

c) tundra = very cold winteres; only the upper layer of the soil thaws during summer

Which of the following statements about deserts and the organisms that live there is true?

a) Growth and reproduction occur year-round in deserts.
b) Desert plants typically produce very few seeds.
c) Air temperatures in cold deserts, such as those west of the Rocky Mountains, may never fall below 30 degrees C.
d) Many desert animals are nocturnal.

d) Many desert animals are nocturnal.

Which of the following is characteristic of the chaparral biome?

a) animal species limited to lizards and snakes
b) dense, broadleaf shrubs
c) low amounts of rainfall at unpredictable periods throughout the year
d) many plants with seeds that need fire to germinate

d) many plants with seeds that need fire to germinate.

Most of the best agricultural soils in the United States are found in areas that were formerly

a) tropical rain forest.
b) temperate grasslands.
c) taiga forest.
d) tundra.

b) temperate grasslands.

The factor(s) that help to perpetuate temperate grasslands, such as the American prairies, and prevent them from becoming woodlands include

a) mild winters with very little rain.
b) large numbers of cacti.
c) periodic drought and fires.
d) poor soil.

c) periodic drought and fires.

In which of the following biomes would you expect to find the highest abundance of large, grazing mammals?

a) temperate grassland
b) desert
c) temperate forest
d) chaparral

a) temperate grassland.

Temperate broadleaf forests are characterized by _____.

a) little precipitation, mostly in the form of snow
b) a thick layer of permafrost
c) a broad range of temperatures ranging from -30°C to 30°C
d) hemlock, Douglas fir, and redwood trees

c) a broad range of temperatures ranging from -30°C to 30°C.

Which of the following biomes, dominated by cone-bearing evergreen trees, is the largest terrestrial biome?

a) coniferous forest
b) savanna
c) chaparral
d) tropical rain forest

a) coniferous forest

Which of the following statements about coniferous forests is true?

a) Coniferous forests are characterized by long but mild winters and short, dry summers that are sometimes warm.
b) Coniferous forests may experience considerable precipitation, but usually in the form of snow.
c) Coniferous forests are the smallest terrestrial biome.
d) Coniferous forests usually have nutrient-rich soils.

b) Coniferous forests may experience considerable precipitation, but usually in the form of snow.

Which characteristic do chaparral and tundra have in common?

a) widely fluctuating temperatures
b) absence of tall trees
c) little precipitation, mostly in the form of snow
d) frequent fires

b) absence of tall trees

Which of these is characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?

a) the presence of algae
b) relatively cool water
c) relatively stable water temperature
d) dead organic matter
e) low oxygen level

a) the presence of algae

The benthic zone of aquatic environments is defined as the _____.

a) region that receives abundant sunlight
b)region where phytoplankton are found
c) region that receives little or no light
d) substrate at the bottom of the body of water
e) region that is flooded at high tide and not covered by water at low tide

d) substrate at the bottom of the body of water

The _____ biome is the largest of Earth's biomes.

a) marine
b) grassland
c) freshwater
d) rain forest
e) desert

a) marine.

A(n) _____ is a region where fresh water and salt water mix.

a) benthic zone
b) intertidal zone
c) aphotic zone
d) estuary
e) photic zone

d) estuary.

What are the two major factors determining the distribution of terrestrial biomes?

a) temperature and light
b) temperature and rainfall
c) light and rainfall
d) plants and animals
e) temperature and plants

b) temperature and rainfall

Which of these biomes is characterized by little rainfall?

a) temperate broadleaf forest
b) coniferous forest
c) desert
d) temperate grassland
e) tropical rain forest

c) desert.

Which of these is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth?

a) tundra
b) coniferous forest
c) temperate broadleaf forest
d) temperate grassland
e) desert

b) coniferous forest

Which biome is characterized by an extensive canopy that allows little light to penetrate to the ground and by the presence of epiphytes?

a) temperate grassland
b) coniferous forest
c) tropical rain forest
d) desert
e) tundra

c) tropical rain forest

Which biome is characterized by the presence of permafrost?

a) taiga
b) tropical forest
c) tundra
d) coniferous forest
e) desert

c) tundra

An ecologist might conduct research to answer which of the following questions?

a) How do tapeworms cope with life in the human intestine?
b) How are different species of fish related (in an evolutionary sense) to each other?
c) How do genes specify protein construction?
d) How does the uneven heating of Earth's surface cause the movement of air and water masses?

a) How do tapeworms cope with life in the human intestine?

Which of these would be considered a biotic component of your environment?

a) temperature
b) your friend
c) water
d) oxygen

b) your friend

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