List the vascular lesions.
Hemangioma, Port-Wine Stain, Spider Angioma, Venous Lake, Petechiae, Purpura, Ecchymosis, Hematoma
List the primary lesions.
Macule/Patch, Papule/Plaque, Nodule/Tumor, Vesicle/Bula, Wheal, Pustule, Cyst
List the secondary lesions.
Atrophy, Erosion, Lichenification, Scales, Crust, Ulcer, Fissure, Scar, Keloid
List the configurations & shapes of lesions.
Annular, Confluent, Discrete, Grouped, Gyrate, Target, Linear, Polycyclic, Zosteriform
Describe what Annular lesions look like.
Circular (Tinea corporis, Pityriasis rosea)
Describe what Confluent lesions look like.
Run together (Urticaria)
Describe what Discrete lesions look like.
Separate & discrete (Malluscum)
Describe what Grouped lesions look like.
Appear in clusters (Purpural Lesion)
Describe what Gyrate lesions look like.
Coiled or twisted
Describe what Target lesions look like.
Concentric circles of color (Erythema multiforme)
Describe what Linear lesions look like.
Appear as a line (scratches)
Describe what Polycyclic lesions look like.
Circular but united (Psoriasis)
Describe what Zosteriform lesions look like.
Arranged in a linear manner along a nerve route (Herpes zoster)
List common skin lesions.
Tinea, Measles (Rubeola),German Measles (Rubella), Chickenpox (Varicellal), Herpes Simplex, HerpesZoster, Psoriasis, Contact Dermatitis, Eczema, Impetigo,
List Malignant skin lesions.
Basal Cell Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Kaposi's Sarcoma
List abnormalities of the hair.
Seborrheic Dermatitis, Tinea Capitis, Alopecia Areata, Folliculitis, Furuncle/Abscess, Hirsutism
List abnormalities of the nails.
Spoon Nails, Paronychia, Beau's Line, Splinter Hemorrhage, Clubbing, Onycholysis
What are the most common occupational skin disorders?
Allergic and irritant dermatitis
Melanoma is responsible for the highest number of _______.
Skin cancer deaths
Melanoma risk is highest in ______.
Melanoma causes _______ as many deaths in caucasion males than it does in caucasion females.
Infants' skin lacks the ability to ________
Infants cannot shiver & do not perspire, therefore limiting __________
Children & adolescents are at risk for skin trauma associated with _________.
accidents, play, & sports activity
Clients with diabetes, liver disease or circulatory disease are at increased risk for________
Problems with the skin and with healing of existing skin problems.
Genetic predisposition & moles increase the risk of developing _______
Promoting circulation to the skin & preventing problems of immobility can be attributed to:
Regular exercise & mobility
What is a Macule?
Flat, nonpalpable change in skin color (freckles, measles)
What is a Papule?
Elevated, solid palpable mass with cicumscribed border (elevated warts or moles).
What is a Plaque?
Groups of papules that form lesions larger than 0.5 cm (psoriasis)
What are Vesicles?
Elevated, fluid-filled, round or oval-shaped, palpable mass with thin, translucent walls & circumscribed borders (chicken pox)
What is a Wheal?
Elevated, often reddish area with irregular border caused by diffuse fluid in tissues ranther than free fluid in a cavity (insect bites & hives)
What is diaphoretic?
What number would you use to describe mild pitting edema?
What number would you use to describe moderate pitting edema?
What number would you use to describe deep pitting edema?
What number would you use to describe very deep pitting edema?
What is meant by mobility of the skin?
How easily it is to be lifted.
What is meant by turgor of the skin?
Resilience / speed in which it returns when released.
Where is the best place to check mobility & turgor of the skin on adults?
Above the clavicle
Where is the best place to check mobility & turgor of the skin on infants?
What is the epidermis?
Outer layer of the skin
What is the dermis?
Underlying layer of skin
What is keratin?
A fibrous protein which gives the epidermis its tough, protective qualities.
What is melanin?
Skin pigment produced in the melanocytes in the stratum basale.
What is the hypodermis?
A cellular layer of subcutaneous tissue consisting of loose connective tissue.
What is the function of the hypodermis?
Stores approximately half of the body's fat cells, cushions the body against trauma, insulates the body from heat loss, & stores fat for energy.
What is another name for the hypodermis?
What are the two types of sweat glands?
Eccrine glands & apocrine glands
What is the function of the eccrine glands?
They produce a clear perspiration mostly made up of water and salts, which they release into funnel-shaped pores at the skin surface . They are more numerous & more widely distributed.
What is the function of the apocrine glands?
Dormant until onset of puberty then produce a secretion made up of water, salts, fatty acids, & proteins which is released into hair follicles. They are found primarily in axillary & anogenital regions. (creates musky odor when sweat mixes with bacteria
What are the major functions of the skin?
Perceiving touch, pressure, temperature, and pain via the nerve endings. (See page 185 for complete list!)
What are the major functions of the cutaneous glands?
Excreting uric acid, urea, ammonia, sodium, potassium, & other metabolic wastes. (See page 185 for complete list!)
What are sebaceous glands?
Oil glands that serete sebum, an oily seretion, which generally is released into hair follicles.
What is hair?
A thin, flexible, elongated fiber composed of dead, keratinized cells that grow out in a columnar fashion.
What is vellus hair?
A pale, fine, short strand, that grows over the entire body except for the margins of the lips, nipples, palms of hands, soles of feet, & parts of the external genitals.
What is terminal hair?
Dark, coarse, long hair that appears on eyebrows, the scalp, and the pubic region.
What are nails?
Thin plates of keratinized eqidermal cells that shield the distal ends of the fingers & toes.
Why does the nail bed appear pink?
Due to the blood supply in the underlying dermis.
What is a lunula?
A moon-shaped crescent which appears on the nail body over the thickened nail matrix.
What is a cuticle?
A fold of epidermal skin which protects the root & sides of each nail.
What are the major functions of the nails?
To protect the tips of the fingers & toes & aid in picking up small objects, grasping, & scratching
What is vernix caseosa?
A cheesy-white substance that coats the skin surfaces at birth.
What is milia?
Harmless skin markings on newborns; areas of tiny white facial papules due to sebum that collects in the openings of hair follicles.
What are Mongolian spots?
Gray, blue, or purple spots in the sacral & buttocks areas of newborns.
How soon do Mongolian spots fade?
During the first year of life.
Mongolian spots occur in about ____% of newborns of African ancestry.
Mongolian spots occur in about ____% of newborns of Asian or Native American ancestry.
What is lanugo?
Fine, downy hair of the newborn which is replaced within a few months.
What is chloasma?
A skin condition that develops during pregnancy resulting in hyperpigmented patches on the face. Also referred to as melasma, gravidum, or "the mask of pregnancy".
What is linea nigra?
A dark line running from the umbilicus to the pubic area; increased pigmentation of the areolae & nipples - usually due to pregnancy.
What is pallor?
Loss of color in skin due to the absence of oxgenated hemoglobin.
Piercing of any body part puts an individual at risk for ______.
Infection & Hepatitis C
What is pruritus?
What deficiencies can cause excessive dandruff?
Protein & Vitamin B as well as a decrease in some essential fatty acids.
Urea & ammonia salts are found on the skin of clients with ______.
What does it mean when skinfold "tents"?
It holds it pinched formation.
What is vitilgo?
Patchy depigmented areas over the face, neck hands, feet, & body folds.
Vitilgo occurs in all races in all parts of the world but seems to affect what color of skin more severely?
Very thin, shiny skin may signal _______
The skin may become excessively smooth & velvety in clients with ________.
Hypothyroidism may cause skin to become _____.
Rough & scaly
What is edema?
Decrease in skin mobility caused by an accumulation of fluid in the intercellular spaces.
What are symptoms of edema
Skin looks puffy, pitted & tight. Most noticeable in the skin of the hands, feet, ankles & sacral area.
What is ecchymosis?
Ecchymosis in the periumbilical area may signal bleeding in what area?
Abdomen (Cullen's sign)
What is a primary lesion?
A lesion which develops on previously unaltered skin.
What is a secondary lesion?
A lesion that changes over time or because of scratching, abrasion, or infection.
Why should you not palpate localized hot, red, swollen painful areas which indicate the presence of inflammation & possible infection?
The slightest disturbance may spread the infection deeper into skin layers.
What deficiency could cause graying of the hair in patches?
Protein or copper
Hypothyroidism & other metabolic disorders, as well as nutritional deficiencies, may cause the hair to be _______.
Dull, dry, brittle & coarse.
When hair loss occurs in women, it is thought to be caused by an imbalance in _____.
What is alopecia areata?
Patchy hair loss
Gray, scaly patches with broken hair may indicate the presence of a fungal infection such as _____.
How do nails appear on clients with peripheral arteriosclerosis or anemia?
Pale & colorless
How do nails appear on clients with jaundice?
How do nails appear on clients with polycythemia.
How may a single nail appear on a client with melanoma in the nail matrix?
Darkly pigmented band
How may the nails occur in clients with chronic heptic or renal disease?
Horizontal white bands
When may clubbing of the fingernails occur?
When there is hypoxia or impaired peripheral tissue perfusion over a long period of time. Also may occur with cirrhosis, colitis, thyroid disease, or long-term tobacco smoking.
What is onycholysis?
Separation of the nail plate from the nail bed. Occurs with trauma, infection, or skin lesions.
What is paronychia?
Infection of the cuticle.
What is pediculosis capitis?
Assessment for oxygenation, jaundice, and petechiae in dark-skinned clients requires examination of what?
Nail bed refill, sclera, & mucous membranes
What is the number 1 skin reaction to allergens?
What may cause localized depigmentation?
Vitilgo or tinea versicolor (a common fungal infection). Typically patchy.
What may cause congenital depigmentation?
Albinism. Typically generalized.
What are some of the environmental exposures?
Chemicals, radiation, hobbies, tanning booths, insects, sun, diapers/wipes, antibacterial products
What is the number 1 cancer?
How many times worse are tanning beds than the sun itself?
What is the least common but most serious type of skin cancer?
Why is malignant melanoma so serious?
It spreads rapidly to lymph & blood vessels
What is the characteristics of malignant melanoma?
Contains areas of varied pigmentation from black to brown to blue or red. The edges are often irregular, with notched borders, and the diameter is greater then 67 mm.