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Which of the following is an instance of persuasive speaking?
A) a family therapist illustrating parenting skills
B) a professor explaining the elements of an atom
C) a lawyer arguing for the acquittal of her client
D) an executive assistant clarifying copyright laws

C) a lawyer arguing for the acquittal of her client

True or false: Because persuasion aims to change the beliefs or actions of listeners, speaking to persuade is one of the few cases in which a speaker does not need to consider her or his ethical obligations.

false

The ____________ audience is the portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.

target

True or false: Concentrating on the target audience means that a persuasive speaker can ignore the rest of the audience.

false

"To persuade my audience that eating yogurt prolongs human life" is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of ____________.

fact

True or false: A persuasive speech on a question of fact is essentially the same as an informative speech.

false

"To persuade my audience that discrimination on the basis of marital status is unfair" is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of ___________.

value

Persuasive speeches on questions of value are usually organized in __________

topical order.

Whenever you give a persuasive speech on a question of value, you need to ___________________.

justify your value judgment against a set of standards or criteria.

A question of ____________ deals with whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.

policy

True or false: "To persuade my audience that Congress should revise the laws governing medical malpractice" is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech on a question of policy.

true

In a persuasive speech to gain ____________, the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of that policy.

passive agreement

True or false: "To persuade my audience to become regular blood donors" is a specific purpose statement for a persuasive speech seeking passive agreement.

false

What method of organization is used in a persuasive speech with the following main points?
I. Fraudulent charity fund-raising has become a widespread problem.
II. The problem can be solved by a combination of government initiative and individual awareness.

problem-solution order

____________ is a five-step method of speech organization that follows the process of human thinking and leads the listener step by step to a desired action.

Monroe's motivated sequence

Which of the following is the third step in Monroe's motivated sequence?
A) action
B) satisfaction
C) visualization
D) need

B) satisfaction

In the visualization step of Monroe's motivated sequence, the speaker ___________________.

visualizes the benefits of the speaker's solution to the problem.

True or false: Monroe's motivated sequence is most useful for speeches that seek immediate action.

true

When using Monroe's motivated sequence to organize a persuasive speech on a question of policy, the action step should be placed in the __________________.

conclusion

What method of organization is used in a persuasive speech with the following main points?
I. The problem of eating disorders affects more than four million Americans.
II. The causes of eating disorders include peer pressure, fad diets, and the media's glamorization of thinness.
III. An effective solution to eating disorders must address all three of these causes.

problem-cause-solution

Regardless of whether your aim is to encourage passive agreement or immediate action, you must deal with three basic issues whenever you discuss a question of policy. What are they?

need, plan, and practicality

Which of the following statements is most clearly directed at the need issue in a persuasive speech on a question of policy?
A) One part of the solution is to have our state require training for all employees of tanning salons.
B) Tanning beds can cause serious medical problems, including eye burns, blood vessel injuries, and skin cancer.
C) Because this solution has worked in other states where it has been adopted, we can be confident that it will work here.
D) Another part of the solution is to require licensing for all employees at tanning salons.

B) Tanning beds can cause serious medical problems, including eye burns, blood vessel injuries, and skin cancer.

Which of the following statements is most clearly directed at the practicality issue in a persuasive speech on a question of policy?
A) One part of the solution is to have our state require training for all employees of tanning salons.
B) Tanning beds can cause serious medical problems, including eye burns, blood vessel injuries, and skin cancer.
C) Because this solution has worked in other states where it has been adopted, we can be confident that it will work here.
D) Another part of the solution is to require licensing for all employees at tanning salons.

C) Because this solution has worked in other states where it has been adopted, we can be confident that it will work here.

What does the textbook mean when it says that a persuasive speech is a kind of mental dialogue between the speaker and the audience? Why is it important for you to keep this mental dialogue in mind when you prepare a persuasive speech?

Listeners do not passively soak in everything a speaker says. Rather, they engage in a mental give-and-take with the speaker. They actively assess the speaker's credibility, delivery, supporting materials, language, reasoning, and emotional appeals. They argue with the speaker inside their heads.
As a speaker, you need to anticipate the possible objections listeners might raise to your point of view. After anticipating possible objections, you must answer them in your speech. You cannot persuade skeptical listeners unless you deal directly with the reasons for their skepticism.

Why is persuasive speaking more complex than speaking to inform?

Persuasive speaking is more complex than speaking to inform because a persuasive speech must address the audience's attitudes, values, and beliefs. Audience analysis and adaptation are much more demanding in persuasive speeches--especially those that deal with controversial topics. It is much easier, for example, to inform an audience about the history of the income tax than to convince it that the U.S. ought to adopt a flat tax in place of a progressive tax.

____________ is the audience's perception of how believable a speaker is.

Credibility

A speaker's credibility is affected above all by how the audience regards the speaker's ________________.

competence and character

____________ is the name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.

Ethos

Strong evidence can
A) enhance a speaker's credibility.
B) increase the persuasiveness of a speech.
C) inoculate listeners against counter persuasion.
D) all of the above.

D) all the above

True or false: No matter what kind of evidence you employ, it will be more persuasive if you state it in specific rather than general terms.

true

True or false: Evidence is more likely to be persuasive if it is familiar to the audience.

False

True or false: Pathos is the word Aristotle used to refer to a speaker's logical appeal.

false

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Over the past few years, there have been a number of cases of academic fraud in men's college basketball programs. We can conclude, therefore, that academic fraud is a widespread problem in men's college basketball.

reasoning from specific instances

What error in reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?
I watched a Taiwanese film in class last week, and it was extremely violent. When I mentioned this to my friend, she said that she, too, had seen a violent Taiwanese film. Apparently all Taiwanese films are violent.

hasty generalization

True or false: Reasoning from principle involves moving from a specific principle to a general conclusion.

False

What error in reasoning is exemplified in the following statement?
I usually eat spaghetti for dinner the day before an exam, but I ran out of spaghetti the night before the calculus final. That's why I got a C.

false cause

True or false:The fallacy of false cause is often known by its Latin name, post hoc, ergo propter hoc

true

What kind of reasoning is used in the following statement?
Because the crime-reduction policy I propose has worked successfully in New York, Houston, and New Orleans, we can be confident that it will work here as well.

analogical reasoning

According to your textbook, the most important question to ask when assessing analogical reasoning is whether
A) the analogy creates a logical dilemma.
B) the two cases being compared are essentially alike.
C) the analogical effect is caused by a third variable.
D) the minor premise needs to be supported.

the two cases being compared are essentially alike

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
Either we install metal detectors in the city schools or we just let the problem of school violence continue to grow.

either-or

The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can we take my opponent's proposed education bill seriously? After all, he flunked out of high school.

ad hominem

The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
As we have seen, the trend is for companies to reduce long-term research and development costs in order to increase short-term profits. Since so many companies are doing this, it must make good business sense.

bandwagon

The following statement is an example of what type of fallacy?
How can we be so concerned about ethics in political campaigns when there are serious problems in the long-term stability of Social Security?

red herring

According to your textbook, the following statement is an example of which type of fallacy?
Once we accept money from soft-drink companies for exclusive rights to sell their products in our high schools, it won't be long until businesses are deciding what courses should be taught and what teachers should be hired.

slippery slope

True or false:Emotional appeal is often necessary when a speaker is trying to move an audience to action.

true

True or false: In persuasive speaking, it is usually appropriate to substitute emotional appeals for evidence and reasoning

false

Which of the following does your textbook recommend as a way to generate emotional appeal in a persuasive speech?
A) Use more denotative language to create an emotional response.
B) Let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content.
C) Modify your body language to give your ideas emotional impact.
D) All of the above.

Let emotional appeal grow naturally out of the speech content.

Identify and define the three types of credibility discussed in your textbook.

The three types of credibility are initial, derived, and terminal. Initial credibility is the credibility of the speaker before she or he starts to speak. Derived credibility is produced by everything the speaker says during the speech itself. Terminal credibility is the credibility of the speaker at the end of the speech.

What are three strategies discussed in your textbook for generating emotional appeal in a persuasive speech?

Use emotional language.
Develop vivid examples.
Speak with sincerity and conviction.

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