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Ch 6, 8, 9, 12, 13

Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.

stigma

When Anthony worked as a prison counselor, he would often ask property offenders why they committed the crime. The overwhelming response was, "I had to feed my family." How would Sykes and Matza classify this response?

appeal to higher loyalties

According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

anomie

Because deviance is inevitable, the more important focus is to find ways to protect people from harmful deviant acts, to find ways to tolerate behavior that is not harmful, and to develop a system of fair treatment for deviants.T/F

True

Stripping an individual of his or her identity as a group member is an example of using a degradation ceremony to brand someone as an outsider.T/F

True

Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

inner control

Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?

the conflict perspective

The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.T/F

True

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

differential association theory

Based on the Strain Theory there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable. T/F

True

The theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an eccess of definitions about either deviance or conformity. T/F

True

Functionalists believe that deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos. T/F

False

Sociologists who believe we help to produce our own orientations to life by joining specific groups is most alligned with with sociological perspective.

symbolic interactionalist

Percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as _____.

recidivism

Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors such honor and praise is an example of a ___.

positive sanction

What is a groups formal and informal means of enforcing norms called?

social control

Which type of sociologists would consider deviance to be a natural part of society?

functionalist

Defining social class in America is an objective science because there are clear-cut, agreed-upon definitions of each class.T/F

False

People in the capitalist class are more likely to experience mental health problems because of the excessive stress associated with managing high-powered jobs.T/F

False

Status inconsistency is common for winners of multimillion-dollar lotteries, especially when the status of their new wealth exceeds the status of their education and occupation.T/F

True

Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education. T/F

True

Based on the Marxist orientation of conflict sociologists, how many distinct social classes exist?

Two

Because members of the capitalist class have the greatest opportunities for travel and to meet people from various walks of life, their children have a wide field of "eligibles" from which to choose a husband or wife. T/F

False

Numerically, what is the race of the majority of the poor in the United States?

white

Wealth and income are interchangeable terms, each meaning the same in reference to social class. T/F

False

When individuals experience status inconsistency, what is their likely choice of behavior?

they will claim the higher status

Which statement regarding the nation's income is MOST accurate?

The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.

Politically the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ___.

working class

There is a direct relationship between the amount of education an occupation requires and the prestige it holds in society. T/F

True

The higher a persons position on the social class ladder the more likely they will become a victim of crime. T/F

False

What are the three variables identified as defining social class?

wealth, power, prestige

What is the relationship between births and no births to single women and their level of education?

the greater level of education the fewer births to single women

When used by sociologists the term wealth refers to ___.

the value of a persons property minus that persons debt, a persons net worth

What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

The south

Which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of elligible marriage partners based on background expectations?

Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation

A person may voluntarily become a minority. T/F

True

For the last five years, Sarah has been trying to recover her ethnic heritage by tracing her family line. This attempt to trace her family line is an example of ________.

ethnic work

Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism. T/F

True

The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called
________.

Jim Crow Law

The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.

direct transfer

What term did Louis Wirth use to define groups of people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination?

minority group

The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Rwanda are all examples of ________.

genocide

The process of compartmentalization helps people who engage in genocide to maintain a sense of being good and moral. T/F

True

The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective. T/F

False

What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?

positive prejudice

Mark and Sally are married, both are working, and they chose not to have children. What classification best fits them?

they are DINKS

In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.

exogamy

John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?

It is his family of orientation.

Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.

nuclear family

Sociologically, what is a blended family?

A husband or wife brings a child into the new family from a prior relationship.

The feeling of sexual attraction and idealization of another is called ________.

romantic love

The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.T/F

False

Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?

It is about the same as the divorce rate of first marriages.

The not-so-empty nest is a phrase that refers to when children ________.

have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents

With the need for independence and greater opportunity, children are leaving home at an earlier age and less likely to return home after they leave. T/F

False

Because the term "Latino" refers to an ethnic group, Latinos may identify themselves as being black, white, or Native American. T/F

True

People who are prejudiced against one racial or ethnic group tend to be prejudiced against other groups. T/F

True

Research has demonstrated that prejudice can have positive ramifications. T/F

True

Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against. T/F

True

Slavery and apartheid are both examples of the ways in which a country's dominant group exploits minority groups for its economic advantage. What do sociologists call this policy?

internal colonialism

The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called
________.

Jim Crow Law

The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.

direct transfer

The massacre of Native Americans in the 1800s, the extermination of the Jews in Nazi Germany, and the slaughter of the Tutsis in Rwanda are all examples of ________.

genocide

The United States Census Bureau allows respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be. T/F

True

What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?

race

When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.

forced assimilation

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

ethnicity

41 states still limit marriage to men and women. T/F

True

Functionalists note the incest taboo serves to avoid role confusion in families. T/F

True

Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.

the gendered division of labor

Research shows divorced fathers often have little contact with their children. T/F

True

Sociologically, what is a family?

two or more people related by blood, marriage, or adoption

Which of the following statements is not true about cohabitation trends?

Couples who cohabit before marriage are less likely to get divorced.

With the need for independence and greater opportunity, children are leaving home at an earlier age and less likely to return home after they leave. T/F

False

Next week, Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew's bar mitzvah is an example of a religious ________.

ritual

Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.

charisma

What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?

the Protestant Ethic

With 54 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?

Roman Catholic

A state religion is referred to as a(n) ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

ecclesia

In state religions, the government and religion work together to try to shape society. T/F

True

Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.

"Religion is ... the opium of the people."

Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?

a new or different religion at odds with the dominant culture and religion

What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?

It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.

Why can't sociologists empirically study religion?

Religion is a matter of faith that is beyond objective evaluation.

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