# Sources of Electricity

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### Energy can be transferred from one placed to another through _____ in motion.

ELECTRICITY: Long transmission lines are examples of energy being transported long distances.

### Electrons do not move to produce a current unless a _____ is applied to move them.

FORCE: Force is always necessary to produce action.

### A source of electricity produced by chemical action is the ______.

ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

### The solution through which electrons move from one battery plate to the other battery plate is called the ______.

ELECTROLYTE: It is a conducting solution that allows electrons to move easily between plates.

### Because a dry cell cannot be recharged once it has completely discharged, it is called a _____ cell.

PRIMARY CELL: Once a primary cell is discharged it must be replaced.

### All single dry cells when new have about _____ volts.

1.5 VOLTS: This is the maximum voltage that can be produced by a single dry cell.

### Higher battery voltages can be obtained by connecting the cells in _____.

SERIES: The total voltage is the sum of the voltages of the individual cells.

### Higher battery current output is obtained when cells are connected in _____.

PARALLEL: The voltage is the same as that of one cell, but each cell adds to the total amount of current.

### Because a storage battery can be recharged, it is classified as a _____ cell.

SECONDARY CELL: Storage batteries can be recharged many times.

### To restore a storage battery to a fully charged condition, electricity current is forced through the battery in the reverse direction by a _____.

CHARGER: A charger can be an alternator in a car, a generator, or an electrical rectifier.

### The most common method of producing electricity is through _____.

MAGNETISM: Without magnetism, electricity could not be generated in the amount used today.

### Rubbing a glass or rubber rod with a cloth produces a _____ charge on the rods.

STATIC CHARGE: Static charges are commonly produced by friction.

### Heat can be converted into electricity by heating a junction of two dissimilar metals called a _____.

THERMOCOUPLE: A thermocouple is a temperature-sensitive device.

### As the junction of a copper and iron thermocouple is heated, the electrons in the copper move from the _____ end to the _____ end.

HOT;COLD: Because the electrons in the iron strip move from the cold end to the hot end.

### In actual practice, a voltmeter is connected to the free ends of a thermocouple and is calibrated in _____ _____.

TEMPERATURE DEGREES: A voltmeter is calibrated for temperature in degrees and it gives a direct temperature reading.

### When several thermocouples are connected together, they form a _____.

THERMOPILE: Because of the low voltage generated by one thermocouple, several are connected to increase the voltage output.

### Light-sensitive devices that convert light to electricity energy are called _____ devices.

PHOTOELECTRIC DEVICES

### As the light shines on a photovoltaic cell, the selenium loses electrons and becomes _____ charged.

POSITIVELY CHARGED

### Depending on the amount of light that strikes a cell, the resistance of a _____ cell varies.

PHOTOCONDUCTIVE CELL: The varying resistance controls the amount of current in the circuit.

### One type of photoconductive cell is the _____ or CdS cell.

CADMIUM SULFIDE OR CdS CELL: The cell's sensitivity to light variations provides measurement of low light levels.

### In a photoemission cell, electrons are emitted directly from teh surface of the _____.

CATHODE: Other photoelectric devices change internally to allow current flow.

### A crystalline material produces a voltage under pressure, which is called the _____ effect.

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT: The amount of voltage produced varies with the amount of pressure.

### A natural crystalline material that has a piezoelectric effect is _____.

QUARTZ: Quartz crystals can be ground to vibrate at exact frequencies.

MICROPHONE

### Electricity in motion is called _____.

ELECTRICAL CURRENT: It is the flow of electrons in a conductor.

### The force that moves electricity originates when some form of energy, such as mechanical motion, is changed into an _____.

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE OR VOLTAGE

### What are transducers?

Devices that change energy, such as mechanical energy, into EMF (electromotive force) or voltage.

### What are the six primary methods of producing a voltage (EMF)?

Chemical action, Magnetism, Friction, Heat, Light and Pressure.

### The basic source of electricity produced by chemical action is the _____.

ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

### Electrons move from one plate of the battery to the other plate through a solution called the _____.

ELECTROLYTE: The electrons are conducted from one plate to the other by a chemical reaction between electrolyte and the two plates.

### What is a primary cell?

A type of cell that once it has been completely discharged, it cannot be charged again unless new materials are used.

DRY CELL

### The voltage or current capacity of a battery can be increased if _____.

two or more cells are connected together.

SERIES CONNECTED

### To INCREASE CAPACITY, a _____ connection is used so the current capacity of all the cells is the sum of the capacities of the individual cells

PARALLEL: All the cells act together as a single cell, and the voltage is the same as that of an individual cell.

SERIES-PARALLEL

LOCAL ACTION

### What type of cells can be restored to their original condition by forcing an electric current to flow through them in the opposite direction of discharge.

SECONDARY CELL: A storage battery is a common example of a secondary cell.

### What are the three kinds of secondary cells?

Lead-acid, nickel-alkali and nickel-cadmium-alkali. (Acid and Alkali are the electrolytes used in the batteries).

### What is a thermopile?

A combination of several thermocouples. It can increases voltage output and measures the heat intensity for a given operation. By connecting the thermopile to a control, the heat can be kept at a set temperature.

### What are Photoelectric devices?

Devices that are sensitive to light and convert the light to electrical energy.

### How are Photoelectric devices classed?

According to the kind of cell they use: PHOTOVOLTAIC, PHOTOCONDUCTIVE & PHOTOEMISSION.

### The six primary methods of producing a voltage are chemical action, magnetism, friction, ____, _____ & _____.

HEAT, LIGHT & PRESSURE.

### Electricity is produced by chemical action in a/an _____.

ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL.

ELECTROLYTE

PRIMARY CELL.

THERMOCOUPLE

### Photoelectric devices convert light energy into _____.

ELECTRICAL ENERGY.

PHOTOCONDUCTIVE

### Producing voltage by exerting a pressure on a crystalline substance is called _____.

PIEZOELECTRIC EFFECT.

### What is the purpose of a microphone?

Converts sound waves into electrical signals.

Example: