the care of the deceased to create natural form and color
the shape of surface structure
3 Dimensions of Restorative Art
1) length 2) width 3) projection
3 Types of Restorative Art
1)Modeling Restoration 2) Mechanical Injuries 3) Cosmetic Restoration
2 Reasons for Proficiency in RA
1) Professional Responsibility 2) Psychological Effect on Family
The study of the face and its features.
Differances in paired features.
Greatest width of the head
is approx. 2/3 its length & measured from parietal eminence to parietal eminence
Views of the Head
1) Frontal 2) Profile 3)Bi-lateral
Top of Skull.
Bones of the Cranium (6)
1. Occipital 2. Parital (2) 3. Temporal (2) 4. Frontal
Parietal Eminence to Parietal Eminence
Widest part of HEAD
Center of zygomatic bone to center of Zygomatic bone
Widest part of FACE
2 parts of the temporal bone
1) Squama 2) Mastoid Process
Verticle portion of the temporal bone.
2 parts of the squama
1) Zygomatic Arch 2) Mandibular Fossa
seperate from zygomaic bone, used to mark the exact location of the halfway point of the ear
lies in front of ear passage, where mandible fits
Behind and below the ear, point of attachment for sternocleidomastiod muscle
4 Eminences of Frontal Bone
1) Frontal Eminences 2) Supercilliary Arches 3) Glabella 4) Supraorbital Margins
Medial end of orbit-projection @ medial end of orbital cavity
Small round smooth eminence between eyebrows.
Upper rim of upper eye socket-medially to end of orbit
Bones of the Face (7)
1. Zygomatic Bone (2) 2. Nasal Bone (2) 3. Maxilla (2) 4. Mandible (1)
Zygomatic Bone (2)
(cheek bone) triangular, diamond shaped bone at front of face.
Measurement Purposes of Zygomatic Bone
Center of zygomatic bone to center of zygomatic bone=the widest part of face (3 eyes wide).
Nasal Bone (2)
Bone @ top of nasal cavity. Profile view gives projection of the nose.
Upper jaw, convex shape. Base of nasal cavity-sharp projection=nasal spine of maxilla-nose will never be lower than that point.
Roof of mouth.
Eminences of teeth (16)
Lower jaw, 16 aveolar processes, concave-horseshoe shape
Body Of Mandible
Verticle portion of mandible.
Point where body and ramus meet.
When standing, muscles are pulled
When in supine position, muscles are pulled
Laterally and posteriorly.
Fixed point-where muscle begins.
A muscle always contracts towards its
Types of Muscles (4)
1) Quadrilateral 2) Temporal 3) Sphincter 4) Double Bellied
Fibers are parallel-runs directly from orgin to insertion.
Wide orgin, narrow insertion. (typically muscles of mastication)
Closes the eyes and mouth
Double Bellied Muscle
Two fleshy portions seperated by an aponeurosis.
Type: sphincter muscle Action: closes the eye
Levator Palprbrea Superioris
Type: quad Action: opens eye
Type: quad (frowning muscle)
(merges with frontalis, located between the eyes, nasal bone to just below glabella) Type: quad
Type: sphincter muscle Action: closes mouth Point of attachment: philtrum
Quadratus Labii Superioris & Levator Anguli Oris
(creates nasalabial fold) Type: quad Action: pulls angles of mouth back
(laughing muscle) Type: quad Action: pulls angles of mouth back
(trumpeters muscle) Type: quad Action: compresses cheek, purses lips
Type: quad Action: opposite of buccinator (relaxes)
Depressor Anguli Oris
Type: quad Action: pulls corners of mouth down
Depressor Labii Inferioris
Type: quad Action: pulls mouth down & side to side
Type: quad Action: pulls chin down
Type: quad Action: pulls neck down
Type: quad Action: pulls neck down & side to side
Type: double bellied Action: pulls head forward
Thickest skin on the head
thickest concentration in hair
thickest concentration in fat
Patches of no pigment.
Canon of Beauty
Rules of perfect proportions.
Head-3 Equal Proportions
1) Lowest border of hairline to upper border supraorbital margin. 2) Upper border of supraorbital margin to base of nose. 3) Base of nose to base of chin.
Eye as system of measurment
*Parietal eminence to parietal eminence=5 eyes wide Center of zygomatic bone to center of zygomatic bone=3 eyes wide Mouth=2 eyes wide *Base of nose=1 eye wide
4 Basic Bi-lateral Forms
1) Oval 2) Round 3) Square 4) Angular
Crevice in the skin bordered by an adjacent elevation. (wrinkle)
Elongated depression in a relativley level surface. (i.e. nasalabial sulcus)
An area that has greater projection than the surrounding area. (i.e. nasalabial fold)
Natural Facial Markings (9)
1)Philtrum 2)Nasalabial Fold 3)Nasal Sulcus 4)Oblique Palpebral Sulcus 5)Angulus Oris Eminence 6)Angulus Oris Sulcus 7)Labiomental Sulcus 8)Submental Sulcus 9)Dimples
Aquired Facial Markings (11)
1)Nasalabial Sulcus 2)Transverse Frontal Sulci 3)Intercilliary Sulci 4)Optic Facial Sulci 5)Superior Palpebral Sulcus 6)Inferior Palpebral Sulcus 7)Bucco-facial Sulcus 8)Mandibular Sulcus 9)Labial Sulcus 10)Patysmal Sulci 11)Cords of Neck
3 Shapes of the Nose
1)Leptorrhine 2)Platyrrhine 3)Mesorrhine
Framework on which wax is placed (any support). i.e. something in nasal cavity to wax to adhere to; chicken wire, window screen, plaster of paris, ect.
To create a pleasant expression
Increase lower lip-decrease upper.
Response to light of specific wavelengths of radiant energy.
Breaking down of sunlight into 7 pure colors. (Roy G. Biv)
Color of spectrum plus those produced by their mixture.
Not a color of the spectrum. (Black, White, Grey)
Unadulterated chromatic color. (becomes adulterated when mixed with an achromatic color)
Primary Pigment Hues
Red, Blue, Yellow
Secondary Pigment Hues
Mixture of 2 primarys
Intermediate Pigment Hues
Mixture of a primary & a secondary.
Browns & Slates. (not on color wheel)
3 Dimensions of Chromatic Pigments
1)Hue 2)Value 3)Intensity
The lightness or darkness of a color.
Addition of white.
Addition of black.
Purity or dullness of a color. (greyness)
Addition of grey.
Looking at 2 colors at once.
One color. (differant tints, tones, shades)
2 or more colors that lie next to each other on the color wheel.
3 Dimensions of Color Illumination
1)Hue 2)Brightness 3)Saturation
The hue of an object appears more vivid when the same hue of illumination strikes it.
1 hue + 2 values of it, same hue of illumination strikes it, larger becomes more vivid, lesser becomes drowned out.
1 hue + a differant hue of illumination=new hue (i.e. red drapes->yellow light->curtains will appear orange)
"Flat"-can not see the light source.
i.e. lamp shade
Lights at ends of casket.
Boxed fixture, goes around edges of room.
Side of room.
Casket Lamp Lighting
Provides direct lighting on face of deceased.
Study of materials and techniques used. *Purpose-to replace color/accent or de-emphasize*
Liquids, Creams, Powders
5 Basic Steps of Cosmetic Application
1)Choose Media 2)Altering Cosmetic 3)Corrective Shaping 4)Reinstatement of Warm Color Areas 5)Powder Application
Differant tones and shades of RED.
Red & Brown
Making something that is not there appear as if it is. (i.e. shadowing a double chin, crooked nose, ect.)
Used to create a natural healthy appearence. Rouge line drops laterally and inferiorly with age.
Natural yellow appearene of the elderly.
Natural Warm Color Area of Hands
Knuckles, Nailbeds, Finger tips
Most vivid warm area on face
2 Types of Powders
Law of Areas
Large areas of color-should be quiet in effect, while small areas should show strong contrasts.
Grey, Black, White
Blue, Green, Purple
Red, Yellow, Orange
3 Primary Hues of Vision
Red, Green, Blue
3 Primary Pigment Hues
Red, Yellow, Blue
Incadescent lighting is high in the color
Commercially produced female make-up.
Combination of 2 or more of the basic pigments
2 or more colors of wax mixed together, 1st is called
4 Basic Pigments
Yellow, Red, Brown, White
The dominant hue should comprise at least ____% of a color scheme.
3 primary hues mixed together produce
Capret/flooring should be the ________ color in the room.
3 Racial Classifications
Black, White, Yellow
Verticle muscle of the forehead (merges with occiptofrontalis)
3 Basic Forms of Facial Profile
1)Convex 2)Concave 3)Verticle
2 colors opposite each other on the color wheel. (greastes contrast)
3 colors. R+B+Y=primary O+G+P=secondary
Always 1 primary and the 2 on either side of its compliment. R=YO+BG
2 adjacent hues and their compliments. O+YO+B+BP
2 seperate hues and their compliments. R+Y=G+P