Professional Communications FINAL

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COM 203 (MWF 9-9:50 AM) Margaret Anderson Mississippi College

In the communication process, what is the term for something that interferes with the communication process?

Noise

When a speaker watches and listens for audience response and adapts the delivered message to that response, the speaker is reacting to audience _____.

Feedback

The 19th century practice of delivering famous speeches from history, instead of writing one's own speeches, is _____.

Declamation

One of the ways that public speaking and conversation are different is that public speaking is _____.

More formal

Noise in the communication process _______.

Can be external or internal

What a public speaker says and how he says it is referred to as ______.

The message itself

A speaker transmits a message through two channels: _____ and _____.

Visual and auditory

The fact that most speeches are planned and rehearsed well in advance of delivery illustrates which of the folioing?

a difference between public speaking and everyday conversation

Head nods, murmurings, facial expressions, and eye contact from audience members are all forms of ______.

Feedback

Turn of the 19th century speakers who expressed their emotions through prescribed dramatic postures, movements, gestures, facial expressions, and tones of voice were known as _____.

Elocutionists

Rachel is called on to speak in front of her Theories of Education class. She has gained confidence and competence in her public speaking class, a term known as ________.

Empowerment

In her speech about volunteering to donate blood at the local blood drive, Jonette used a lot of slang words, sat on the table in front of the classroom, and was dressed very casually. Which of the following statements best describes the situation?

Jonette ignored the rule that public speaking is more formal than conversation.

What is the term for the method of reducing speech anxiety that calls for the speaker to imagine him/herself speaking comfortably and effectively in front of an audience?

Positive visualization

The three types of general speech purposes are ______, _______, and ______.

To entertain, to inform, and to persuade.

A speech that is designed to teach, define, illustrate, clarify, or elaborate on a topic reflects __________.

An informative speech purpose

Speech anxiety or nervousness before a speech ______.

is caused by a natural "fight or flight" response

The three major divisions of a speech are ______, ______, and ______.

the introduction, the body (discussion section), and the conclusion

The purpose of an introduction is ________.

to get the audience's attention and interest

What is the best way to rehearse a speech?

Aloud, standing just as you will when you deliver the speech to your audience

Looking for audience members who are smiling at you, making eye contact, and nodding ______.

will make you feel more confident

Speakers who procrastinate in preparing for their speeches ________.

will feel more speaker apprehension

Deep breathing techniques before a speech _____.

will help you relax your whole body

Our beliefs, values, and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong are ____.

ethics

Although the First Amendment of the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, that freedom is restricted in speeches ______.

that present a clear and present danger

The willingness to listen to different viewpoints and understand beliefs and values different from your own is known as _______.

accommodation

Lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is an unethical practice known as _______.

plagiarism

When citing your sources orally in a speech, you should ______.

state briefly the author, title, and year

When we, as speakers, consider our beliefs, values, and moral principles when writing and presenting a speech, we are _______.

speaking ethically

If you attempt to convince listeners to do something illegal, you are violating a speaking ethic which expects speakers to ______.

have clear, responsible goals

In the 1950's, Senator Joseph McCarthy convinced the American public that Communists were infiltrating every aspect of their lives by ______.

distorting the truth and manipulating emotions

In a persuasive speech, a speaker should present information that opposes his point of view, because:

it is his ethical responsibility to help the audience reach an informed decision

With regard to the "grey areas" of ethics pertaining to the use of sources in a speech:

when in doubt, document all of your sources in your speech

When a person decides not to overestimate or falsify an insurance claim just to have the extra money, this action is based upon:

one's code of ethics

Using sound evidence and reasoning in a speech is an example of:

an ethical guideline

In a persuasive speech, you tell a hypothetical story in your introduction and represent it as actually happening to you. Is this appropriate?

No, because you are violating an ethical principle which requires that speakers be honest.

For a speech assignment, you find several articles on the Internet that are perfect for your speech topic. You copy the articles, then cut and paste the parts you'll read as your speech. Is this ethical?

No, because you committed patchwork plagiarism.

In a speech on high blood pressure, you cite a number of statistics from a Web page by saying, "As stated in www.bloodpressure.org...". According to your text, what is the problem with this oral citation?

You have not provided sufficient information for oral citation from an online source.

Because we hear so many sounds simultaneously, the first stage of listening is to:

select

When we, as listeners, focus on the message, we are said to:

attend

The process of listeners relating material to their own experiences and knowledge is to:

understand

When listeners can recall ideas and information presented to them, they are said to:

remember

Because we spend so much of our day listening, we tend to "tune out." This process is called:

information overload

When you decide immediately that a speaker's message has no value for you, the listening barrier to overcome is:

prejudice

A listener who suffers from a fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting messages is said to have:

listener apprehension

When you are worrying about an exam that is coming up next period, the barrier to listening is:

personal concerns

What kind of listening occurs when you listen to learn something?

information

What kind of listening occurs when you listen to a friend who has problems?

empathizing

When Jenny heard the speech about the sinking of the Titanic presented in her class, she thought the speech was on the movie of the same name. What was Jenny's problem?

understanding

You've been to four classes in one day. In each class, you've listened to a lecture and taken notes. By the time you get to your night class, you feel like you just can't take in another word. What is the term for what you are experiencing?

Information overload

Mark is preparing a presentation on the basic principles underlying nuclear physics. Justifiably, he is concerned about the technical terms in his speech because it is highly likely that his audience will not be familiar with this topic. If Mark does not translate the terms into recognizable forms, what aspect of the listening process will be hampered for his listeners?

understanding

Dave has signed up to he last in his speaking order because his 21st birthday was the day before and he just had to celebrate. He stayed out late and did not get enough sleep. He feels so bad that he doesn't even realize it's time for his presentation until the professor calls his name... twice. What is the term for what Dave is experiencing?

Internal noise

Colin had researched, outlined, and practiced his speech carefully, but on the day he was to give the presentation, his girlfriend broke up with him. He found it impossible to keep his mind on his speech or his audience and continually lost his place. What term best describes this situation?

Psychological noise

Every speech you give will have three basic parts; the first part is:

the introduction

The first step in an introduction is:

to get the audience's attention

It is important in an introduction to build trust with the audience, to have them believe you and like you. This is known as speaker:

credibility

The final step in an introduction is to provide your audience with an overview of your speech. This step is known as:

a preview

In an introduction, you may ask a question that does not require a response but makes the audience think about your topic. This type of question is:

a rhetorical question

A speaker who describes his or her main points as part of the introduction is utilizing what device?

a preview statement

What should a speech conclusion do?

summarize the main ideas

Reemphasizing the central idea in a memorable way, moving the audience to action, and providing closure are all functions of:

the speech conclusion

In a speech introduction, the most important purpose that you must accomplish is:

to introduce the topic of your speech

Terms like "finally," "in conclusion," and "in closing" are all examples of:

devices that provide closure for a speech

Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points for a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about how to start an online business"?

chronological

What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose, "To inform my audience about three major ways to block junk mail from their e-mail system"?

topical

When the main points of a speech follow a time pattern, they are organized in:

chronological order

When main ideas follow a directional pattern, they are organized in:

spatial order

What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the central idea "Estate taxes should be retained because they preserve opportunity for all, because their elimination would increase the national deficit, and because they are consistent with American values of fairness and justice"?

topical

Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the major geographical regions of Mexico"?

spatial

Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points? "Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every ten years will do much to help solve the problem."

problem-solution

Here are the main points for an informative speech about the major categories of dog breeds: "The working dogs do rescue, police, herding, and guide jobs. The hound dogs are hunters that specialize in small animals. The terrier dogs make good watchdogs. The toy dogs are primarily house pets." These main points are organized in what order?

topical

Words or phrases that indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving on to another is called:

transitions

If the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it would be an example of what kind of connective? "Now that we have learned about the history of Mormonism, let's considered its major beliefs."

transition

Arranging ideas from the simple to the more complex

Complexity

Arranging ideas from the least to the most important

Recency

Arranging ideas from the most to the least important

Primacy

Factual examples and statistics

Hard Evidence

Supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference. Includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, analogies, and opinions.

Soft Evidence

A coordinated small group of people organized for the purpose of working together, with clearly defined rules, responsibilities, and goals is defined as:

a team

John Dewey's method of problem solving, which involves a five step process is:

reflective thinking

When working to solve a problem, one must set standards for identifying an acceptable solution. These standards are also known as:

criteria

When a group agrees to support and commit to the decision of the group, they have reached:

a consensus

A style of leadership characterized by superiority, the giving of orders, and control over group members is termed:

an authoritarian style

A group leader who allows complete freedom for discussions and decisions, but participates in neither is:

a laissez faire leader

A group leader who is objective, encourages group discussions and decisions, and guides when necessary is:

a democratic leader

In a small group, the written description of the items and issues that will be discussed at a designated meeting is known as:

an agenda

In order to manage a meeting so that it does not become disorganized and rambling, one must balance:

structure and interaction

The group got together at Mark's house to work out a problem. First they made sure everyone had a clear sense of what the problem was; then they began to analyze it. What is going on in this situation? Group members are effectively:

going through reflective thinking

When Victoria presented some evidence in the form of library research, Russell suggested that they listen to it and decide if it was something that would be useful for their project. Which tip for articulating in a small group did Russell effectively enact?

evaluate the evidence

The instructor assignedJanet to be the group's leader, but others in the group have come to resent her. She rarely lets other group members offer suggestions and always controls how much gets accomplished. What's the term for Janet's leadership style?

authoritarian

Shawn detested going to group meetings because they were disorganized, conflict-oriented, and generally a waste of time. What simple device would help with this group?

a meeting agenda

Your group thoroughly discussed the problem; not they are starting to generate possible solutions. However, they are getting bogged down by comments for or against certain ideas. What advice would help your group in this situation? They should:

refrain from criticizing ideas until they have generated a full list

Group members are generating ideas at a rapid speed and the problem-solving process is clipping right along when suddenly Rupert blurts out, "Will someone give me a clear picture of all the things we've talked about so far?" By this Rupert is:

helping the group summarize its progress

Margo's group has been working hard and has now come up with several solutions to their problem. At this point, Margo says, "Let's list these and vote on the best one. It's the democratic way." What step has Margo overlooked in the problem-solving process?

consider the pros and cons of each solution

Ed liked to make his presence known in group meetings. He never failed to offer an opinion or comment, even when it was obvious he didn't know anything about what was being discussed. What should Ed be reminded of, in order to enhance group progress and satisfaction?

Speak only if your contribution is relevant

Visual aids are most effective when they are displayed:

only while the speaker is discussing them

When considering the use of fonts in presentation aids, you should know that a sans serif font:

has no added lines at the top and bottom

When developing presentation aids, consider using color. Warm colors, such as red, yellow, or orange:

communicate excitement and draw attention

Erin presented an informative speech on how to repair a leaky faucet. What type of informative speech was this?

a speech about a procedure

Seth decided to present his informative speech on the origins and development of the Mardi Gras parades. What type of informative speech did Seth present?

a speech about an event

A smaller version of a large object that is used as a presentation aid is termed:

a model

The most unpredictable presentation aid a speaker could use is:

a person or an animal

From the following options, the best reason to use presentation aids is:

they help your audience understand and remember

the type of speech that will benefit form the use of presentation aids is:

any type of speech

Which of the following is an example of a two-dimensional presentation aid?

a graph of population growth

In a speech in which the general purpose is "to inform," a speaker's goal is:

to be a teacher of new information

The type of informative speech that concerns anything you can see or touch is a speech about:

objects

the art and science of teaching children to learn is

pedagogy

The art and science of teaching adults to learn is:

andragogy

What kind of speech focuses on a process or how something works?

a speech about a procedure

An informative speech about an event typically follows this pattern of organization:

chronological

An informative speech that discusses principles, concepts, and theories is classified as a speech about:

ideas

Interpersonal communication is:

communication that occurs between two people who have a relationship and who are influenced by each other's communication messages.

What type of speech involves trying to get the audience to change or reinforce their attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors?

Persuasion

Beliefs are:

what an individual believes to be true or false.

Attitudes are:

an individual's likes or dislikes (they are the easiest to change).

Values are:

what an individual believes to be right or wrong, good or bad (the most difficult to change)

How do you motivate your listeners?

through cognitive dissonance ("thought"/"harmony")

What can the audience do with the information a speaker presents?

Discredit the source, misinterpret the message, seek new information, or stop listening all together

What are the steps to Maslow's Hierarchy of Need? (going from the least to most important)

Physiological, Safety, Social Needs, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization

What is the main purpose of a proposition?

to make a statement

What is a proposition of fact?

makes a claim to whether something is true or false

What is a proposition of value?

makes a claim whether something is good or bad, right or wrong

What is a proposition of policy

makes a claim about something the audience should or should not be led to do

What is credibility?

the believability of the speaker; competence, character, and charisma are its major dimensions

Ethos is:

an appeal to character, credibility, or ethics

Logos is:

an appeal to logic and reasoning

Pathos is:

an appeal to human emotion

Dynamism is:

a part of credibility; the aspect of a speaker's presentation that is energy-full (includes facial expressions and gestures)

Charisma is:

charm, talent, magnetism in speaking (the speaker has the "it" factor)

What is inductive reasoning?

begins with specific examples and ends with a general conclusion (the conclusion is probable or improbable); reasoning is used to reach a general conclusion or discover something new.

What is deductive reasoning?

begins with a general statement and ends with a specific conclusion (conclusion is true or false); reasoning is used to reach a specific conclusion by applying what is known.

What is causal reasoning?

begins with something known and ends with a speculation about something unknown occurring, based on what is known (conclusion is likely or unlikely); reasoning is used to link something known with something unknown.

Reasoning is:

the process of drawing a conclusion from evidence

Causal fallacy is:

cause and effect between events that are NOT connected

Bandwagon fallacy is:

reasoning that if everyone else believes or does something, you also believe the thought or think the action is justifiable

Either-Or fallacy is:

has "either" or "or" in the statement; oversimplifying an issue by giving, for example, one of two outcomes

Hasty generalization is:

when one reaches a conclusion without adequate evidence to support it

"Attacking the person," or "ad hominem," is:

(Latin for "to the man") attacking irrelevant personal characteristics about the person presenting the idea rather than attacking the idea itself

A "Red Herring" fallacy is:

attacking an issue by using irrelevant facts to distract from the issue that needs to be discussed

An "Appeal to Misplaced Authority" is:

when a speaker uses the credibility of someone to endorse an idea or product although they have no experience or credentials to endorse it

A "Non-Sequitur" is:

(Latin for "it does not flow") an idea does not follow or have anything to do with the following idea

What are the five steps to Monroe's Motivated Sequence?

Attention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, and Action (from the audience)

When using material to support your speech, illustrations can be:

anecdotes or short stories; brief, extended, or hypothetical

When using material to support your speech, _____ and _____ can be used to further explain your point, give the audience an idea about how pertinent your topic is (numbers).

descriptions and statistics

When using material to support your speech, explanations include information that explain:

how and why

When using material to support your speech, definitions include:

classifications (definitions) and operational information (how it works)

When using material to support your speech, analogies can be either ____ or _____.

figurative or literal

When using material to support your speech, three types of opinions can be utilized:

Expert Testimony, Lay Testimony, and Literary Quotations

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