In the communication process, what is the term for something that interferes with the communication process?
When a speaker watches and listens for audience response and adapts the delivered message to that response, the speaker is reacting to audience _____.
The 19th century practice of delivering famous speeches from history, instead of writing one's own speeches, is _____.
One of the ways that public speaking and conversation are different is that public speaking is _____.
The fact that most speeches are planned and rehearsed well in advance of delivery illustrates which of the folioing?
a difference between public speaking and everyday conversation
Head nods, murmurings, facial expressions, and eye contact from audience members are all forms of ______.
Turn of the 19th century speakers who expressed their emotions through prescribed dramatic postures, movements, gestures, facial expressions, and tones of voice were known as _____.
Rachel is called on to speak in front of her Theories of Education class. She has gained confidence and competence in her public speaking class, a term known as ________.
In her speech about volunteering to donate blood at the local blood drive, Jonette used a lot of slang words, sat on the table in front of the classroom, and was dressed very casually. Which of the following statements best describes the situation?
Jonette ignored the rule that public speaking is more formal than conversation.
What is the term for the method of reducing speech anxiety that calls for the speaker to imagine him/herself speaking comfortably and effectively in front of an audience?
The three types of general speech purposes are ______, _______, and ______.
To entertain, to inform, and to persuade.
A speech that is designed to teach, define, illustrate, clarify, or elaborate on a topic reflects __________.
An informative speech purpose
Speech anxiety or nervousness before a speech ______.
is caused by a natural "fight or flight" response
The three major divisions of a speech are ______, ______, and ______.
the introduction, the body (discussion section), and the conclusion
What is the best way to rehearse a speech?
Aloud, standing just as you will when you deliver the speech to your audience
Looking for audience members who are smiling at you, making eye contact, and nodding ______.
will make you feel more confident
Speakers who procrastinate in preparing for their speeches ________.
will feel more speaker apprehension
Our beliefs, values, and moral principles by which we determine what is right or wrong are ____.
Although the First Amendment of the Constitution guarantees freedom of speech, that freedom is restricted in speeches ______.
that present a clear and present danger
The willingness to listen to different viewpoints and understand beliefs and values different from your own is known as _______.
Lifting key passages from sources you do not credit in your speech is an unethical practice known as _______.
When citing your sources orally in a speech, you should ______.
state briefly the author, title, and year
When we, as speakers, consider our beliefs, values, and moral principles when writing and presenting a speech, we are _______.
If you attempt to convince listeners to do something illegal, you are violating a speaking ethic which expects speakers to ______.
have clear, responsible goals
In the 1950's, Senator Joseph McCarthy convinced the American public that Communists were infiltrating every aspect of their lives by ______.
distorting the truth and manipulating emotions
In a persuasive speech, a speaker should present information that opposes his point of view, because:
it is his ethical responsibility to help the audience reach an informed decision
With regard to the "grey areas" of ethics pertaining to the use of sources in a speech:
when in doubt, document all of your sources in your speech
When a person decides not to overestimate or falsify an insurance claim just to have the extra money, this action is based upon:
one's code of ethics
In a persuasive speech, you tell a hypothetical story in your introduction and represent it as actually happening to you. Is this appropriate?
No, because you are violating an ethical principle which requires that speakers be honest.
For a speech assignment, you find several articles on the Internet that are perfect for your speech topic. You copy the articles, then cut and paste the parts you'll read as your speech. Is this ethical?
No, because you committed patchwork plagiarism.
In a speech on high blood pressure, you cite a number of statistics from a Web page by saying, "As stated in www.bloodpressure.org...". According to your text, what is the problem with this oral citation?
You have not provided sufficient information for oral citation from an online source.
Because we spend so much of our day listening, we tend to "tune out." This process is called:
When you decide immediately that a speaker's message has no value for you, the listening barrier to overcome is:
A listener who suffers from a fear of misunderstanding or misinterpreting messages is said to have:
When you are worrying about an exam that is coming up next period, the barrier to listening is:
When Jenny heard the speech about the sinking of the Titanic presented in her class, she thought the speech was on the movie of the same name. What was Jenny's problem?
You've been to four classes in one day. In each class, you've listened to a lecture and taken notes. By the time you get to your night class, you feel like you just can't take in another word. What is the term for what you are experiencing?
Mark is preparing a presentation on the basic principles underlying nuclear physics. Justifiably, he is concerned about the technical terms in his speech because it is highly likely that his audience will not be familiar with this topic. If Mark does not translate the terms into recognizable forms, what aspect of the listening process will be hampered for his listeners?
Dave has signed up to he last in his speaking order because his 21st birthday was the day before and he just had to celebrate. He stayed out late and did not get enough sleep. He feels so bad that he doesn't even realize it's time for his presentation until the professor calls his name... twice. What is the term for what Dave is experiencing?
Colin had researched, outlined, and practiced his speech carefully, but on the day he was to give the presentation, his girlfriend broke up with him. He found it impossible to keep his mind on his speech or his audience and continually lost his place. What term best describes this situation?
It is important in an introduction to build trust with the audience, to have them believe you and like you. This is known as speaker:
The final step in an introduction is to provide your audience with an overview of your speech. This step is known as:
In an introduction, you may ask a question that does not require a response but makes the audience think about your topic. This type of question is:
a rhetorical question
A speaker who describes his or her main points as part of the introduction is utilizing what device?
a preview statement
Reemphasizing the central idea in a memorable way, moving the audience to action, and providing closure are all functions of:
the speech conclusion
In a speech introduction, the most important purpose that you must accomplish is:
to introduce the topic of your speech
Terms like "finally," "in conclusion," and "in closing" are all examples of:
devices that provide closure for a speech
Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points for a speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about how to start an online business"?
What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the specific purpose, "To inform my audience about three major ways to block junk mail from their e-mail system"?
What organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of a speech with the central idea "Estate taxes should be retained because they preserve opportunity for all, because their elimination would increase the national deficit, and because they are consistent with American values of fairness and justice"?
Which organizational pattern would probably be most effective for arranging the main points of speech with the specific purpose "To inform my audience about the major geographical regions of Mexico"?
Which organizational method is used in a speech with the following main points? "Many citizens are victimized every year by incompetent lawyers. A bill requiring lawyers to stand for recertification every ten years will do much to help solve the problem."
Here are the main points for an informative speech about the major categories of dog breeds: "The working dogs do rescue, police, herding, and guide jobs. The hound dogs are hunters that specialize in small animals. The terrier dogs make good watchdogs. The toy dogs are primarily house pets." These main points are organized in what order?
Words or phrases that indicate when a speaker has completed one thought and is moving on to another is called:
If the following statement occurred in the body of a speech, it would be an example of what kind of connective? "Now that we have learned about the history of Mormonism, let's considered its major beliefs."
Supporting material based mainly on opinion or inference. Includes hypothetical illustrations, descriptions, explanations, definitions, analogies, and opinions.
A coordinated small group of people organized for the purpose of working together, with clearly defined rules, responsibilities, and goals is defined as:
When working to solve a problem, one must set standards for identifying an acceptable solution. These standards are also known as:
When a group agrees to support and commit to the decision of the group, they have reached:
A style of leadership characterized by superiority, the giving of orders, and control over group members is termed:
an authoritarian style
A group leader who allows complete freedom for discussions and decisions, but participates in neither is:
a laissez faire leader
A group leader who is objective, encourages group discussions and decisions, and guides when necessary is:
a democratic leader
In a small group, the written description of the items and issues that will be discussed at a designated meeting is known as:
In order to manage a meeting so that it does not become disorganized and rambling, one must balance:
structure and interaction
The group got together at Mark's house to work out a problem. First they made sure everyone had a clear sense of what the problem was; then they began to analyze it. What is going on in this situation? Group members are effectively:
going through reflective thinking
When Victoria presented some evidence in the form of library research, Russell suggested that they listen to it and decide if it was something that would be useful for their project. Which tip for articulating in a small group did Russell effectively enact?
evaluate the evidence
The instructor assignedJanet to be the group's leader, but others in the group have come to resent her. She rarely lets other group members offer suggestions and always controls how much gets accomplished. What's the term for Janet's leadership style?
Shawn detested going to group meetings because they were disorganized, conflict-oriented, and generally a waste of time. What simple device would help with this group?
a meeting agenda
Your group thoroughly discussed the problem; not they are starting to generate possible solutions. However, they are getting bogged down by comments for or against certain ideas. What advice would help your group in this situation? They should:
refrain from criticizing ideas until they have generated a full list
Group members are generating ideas at a rapid speed and the problem-solving process is clipping right along when suddenly Rupert blurts out, "Will someone give me a clear picture of all the things we've talked about so far?" By this Rupert is:
helping the group summarize its progress
Margo's group has been working hard and has now come up with several solutions to their problem. At this point, Margo says, "Let's list these and vote on the best one. It's the democratic way." What step has Margo overlooked in the problem-solving process?
consider the pros and cons of each solution
Ed liked to make his presence known in group meetings. He never failed to offer an opinion or comment, even when it was obvious he didn't know anything about what was being discussed. What should Ed be reminded of, in order to enhance group progress and satisfaction?
Speak only if your contribution is relevant
When considering the use of fonts in presentation aids, you should know that a sans serif font:
has no added lines at the top and bottom
When developing presentation aids, consider using color. Warm colors, such as red, yellow, or orange:
communicate excitement and draw attention
Erin presented an informative speech on how to repair a leaky faucet. What type of informative speech was this?
a speech about a procedure
Seth decided to present his informative speech on the origins and development of the Mardi Gras parades. What type of informative speech did Seth present?
a speech about an event
From the following options, the best reason to use presentation aids is:
they help your audience understand and remember
Which of the following is an example of a two-dimensional presentation aid?
a graph of population growth
In a speech in which the general purpose is "to inform," a speaker's goal is:
to be a teacher of new information
The type of informative speech that concerns anything you can see or touch is a speech about:
An informative speech that discusses principles, concepts, and theories is classified as a speech about:
Interpersonal communication is:
communication that occurs between two people who have a relationship and who are influenced by each other's communication messages.
What type of speech involves trying to get the audience to change or reinforce their attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors?
what an individual believes to be right or wrong, good or bad (the most difficult to change)
What can the audience do with the information a speaker presents?
Discredit the source, misinterpret the message, seek new information, or stop listening all together
What are the steps to Maslow's Hierarchy of Need? (going from the least to most important)
Physiological, Safety, Social Needs, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization
What is a proposition of policy
makes a claim about something the audience should or should not be led to do
What is credibility?
the believability of the speaker; competence, character, and charisma are its major dimensions
a part of credibility; the aspect of a speaker's presentation that is energy-full (includes facial expressions and gestures)
What is inductive reasoning?
begins with specific examples and ends with a general conclusion (the conclusion is probable or improbable); reasoning is used to reach a general conclusion or discover something new.
What is deductive reasoning?
begins with a general statement and ends with a specific conclusion (conclusion is true or false); reasoning is used to reach a specific conclusion by applying what is known.
What is causal reasoning?
begins with something known and ends with a speculation about something unknown occurring, based on what is known (conclusion is likely or unlikely); reasoning is used to link something known with something unknown.
Bandwagon fallacy is:
reasoning that if everyone else believes or does something, you also believe the thought or think the action is justifiable
Either-Or fallacy is:
has "either" or "or" in the statement; oversimplifying an issue by giving, for example, one of two outcomes
"Attacking the person," or "ad hominem," is:
(Latin for "to the man") attacking irrelevant personal characteristics about the person presenting the idea rather than attacking the idea itself
A "Red Herring" fallacy is:
attacking an issue by using irrelevant facts to distract from the issue that needs to be discussed
An "Appeal to Misplaced Authority" is:
when a speaker uses the credibility of someone to endorse an idea or product although they have no experience or credentials to endorse it
A "Non-Sequitur" is:
(Latin for "it does not flow") an idea does not follow or have anything to do with the following idea
What are the five steps to Monroe's Motivated Sequence?
Attention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, and Action (from the audience)
When using material to support your speech, illustrations can be:
anecdotes or short stories; brief, extended, or hypothetical
When using material to support your speech, _____ and _____ can be used to further explain your point, give the audience an idea about how pertinent your topic is (numbers).
descriptions and statistics
When using material to support your speech, explanations include information that explain:
how and why
When using material to support your speech, definitions include:
classifications (definitions) and operational information (how it works)
When using material to support your speech, analogies can be either ____ or _____.
figurative or literal