Chapter 27, The Reproductive System

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What are the primary sex organs?

Gonads: Testes, and ovaries.

What do Gonads produce?

Sex cells (gametes.

What do Goands secrete?

Steroid sex hormones - Androgens (males), Estrogens and Progesterone (females).

What do Sex Hormones play roles in?

Dvelopment and function of the reproductive organs, sexual behavior and drives, growth and development of many other organs and tissues.

What is the function of the testes?

Within the scrotum produce sperm.

How are sperm delivered?

Through a system of ducts - Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and the urethra.

What are the accessory glands of the Male Reproductive System?

Seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands.

What do the accesory glands do?

Empty secretions into the ducts during ejaculation.

What are the testes surrounded by?

Two tunics.

What divides the testis?

Septa into 250 - 300 lobules, each containing 1 - 4 seminiferous tubules.

What are Sperm conveyed through?

Seminiferous tubules, tubulus rectum, rete testis, efferent ductules, epididymis.

What is the blood supply of the testes?

Testicular arteries and veins.

What encloses nerve fibers, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply the testes?

Spermatic cord.

What are Interstitial (Leydig) cells?

Outside the seminiferous tubules that produce androgens.

What do the Seminal Vesicles produce?

Vicious alkaline seminal fluid - fructose, ascrobic acid, coagulating enzyme (vesiculase), and prostaglandins.

What does the Seminal Fluid account for in the Semen?

70% of the volume.

What does the duct of the seminal vesicle join with?

The ductus deferns to form the ejaculatory duct.

What is the prostate?

Encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder.

What does the Prostate secrete?

Milky, slightly acid fluid - contains citrate, enzymes, and prostate specific antigen (PSA).

What does the fluid produce by the prostate do?

Plays a role in the activation of sperm, enters the prostatic urethra during ejaculation.

What is the Bulbourethral Gland?

Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate, produces thick - clear mucus prior to ejaculation.

What does the mucus produced by the bulbourethral gland do?

Lubricates the glans penis and neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra.

What is Semen?

Mixture of Sperm and accesory gland secretions.

What does Semen do?

Contains nutrients (fructose), protects and activates sperm, and facilitaes their movement (e.g. relax - produced by prostate).

What are Prostaglandins?

Produced by seminal vesicles, decreases the viscosity of mucus in the cervix, stimulate reverse peristalsis in the uterus.

What does Semen neutralize?

Alkalinity neutralizes the acid in the male urethra and female vagina.

What do the Antibiotic chemicals in the Semen do?

Seminalplasmin destroys certain bacteria.

How many ml of semen are ejaculated?

2- 5 ml.

How much sperm is ejactulated?

20 - 150 million sperm/ml. (40 - 750 million sperm ejaculation.

What is Infertility?

When sperm count falls below 20 million sperm/ml.

What is Impotence?

The inability to sustain an erection.

What is an Erection?

Enlargement and stiffening of the penis from engorgement of erectile tissue with blood.

What does the parasympathic reflex promote?

Release of NO - nitric Oxide.

What does Nitric Oxide do?

Causes erectile tissue to fill with blood.

What keeps the urethra open during an erection?

Corpus spongiosum.

What does the expansion of the Corpus Cavernosa do?

Compresses drainage veins and maintains engorgment.

What is Ejaculation?

Propulsion of semen from the male duct system.

What does the Sympathic spinal relfex cause?

Ducts and accessory glands to contract and empty their contents, bladder sphincter muscle to constrict, preventing the expulsion of urine, bulbospongiosus muscle to undergo a rapid series of contractions.

What is Spermatogensis?

Sequence of events that produces sperm in the seminiferous tubules o f the testes.

What are most body cells?

Diploid 2n.

What do most body cells contain?

Two sets of chormosomes (one maternal, one paternal), 23 pairs of homolgous chromosomes.

What are Gametes?

Haploid (n).

What do Gametes contain?

23 Chromosomes.

What happens during Mitosis of Spermatogenesis?

Spermatogonia form Spermatocytes.

What happens during Meiosis of Spermatogenesis?

Spermatocytes form spermatids.

What happens during Spermiogenesis of Spermatogenesis?

Spermatids become sperm.

What does the Hypothalamus release?

Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).

What does GnRH stimulate?

The anterior pituitary to secrete FSH and LH.

What does FSH do?

Causes sustentacular cells to release androgen-binding protein (ABP), which makes permatogenic cell receptive to testosterone (enhances spermatogenesis).

What does LH do?

Stimulates interstitial cells to release testosterone.

What is Testosterone?

The final tirgger for spermatogenesis.

What does Feedback inhibition on the hypothalamus and pituitary result from?

Rising levels of testosterone, inhibin (released when sperm count is high).

What does Inhibin do?

Inhibits the release of FSH and GnRH.

What are the ovaries?

Female gonads.

What do the Ovaries produce?

Female gametes (OVA).

What do Ovaries Secrete?

Female sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone.

What are Ovaries held in place by?

Ovarian ligament, suspensory ligament, and mesovarium.

What is the Ovarian Ligament?

Anchors ovary medially to the uterus.

What is the Suspensory Ligament?

Anchors ovary laterally to the pelvic wall.

What is the Mesovarium?

Suspends the ovary.

What is the Broad Ligament?

Supports the uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina; also contains the suspensory ligament and mesovarium.

What is the blood supply of the ovaries?

Ovarian arteries and ovarian branch of the uterine artery.

What are the Ovaries surrounded by?

Fibrous tunica Albuginea.

What are the two region of the ovaries?

Cortex: ovarian follicles, and Medulla: Large blood vessels and nerves.

What is a Follicle?

Immature egg (oocyte) surrounded by Follicle cells (on cell layer thick), and Granulosa cells (when more then one layer is present).

What are the stages of development of a Follicle?

Primordial Follicle, Primary Follicle, Secondary Follicle, Late Secondary Follicle.

What is the Primordial Follicle?

Squamouslike follicle cell + oocyte.

What is the Primary Follicle?

Cuboidal or columnar follicle cells + oocyte.

What is the Secondary Follicle?

Two or more layers of granulosa cells + oocyte.

What is the Late Secondary Follicle?

Contains fluid-filled space between granulosa cells; coalesces to form a central antrum.

What is the major portion of the Uterus?

Uterine Body.

What is the rounded superior region of the Uterus?

Fundus of Uterus.

What is the narrow inferior region of the Uterus?

Isthums of Uterus.

What is the Cervix?

Narrow neck, or outlet; projects into the vagina.

What does the Cervical Canal Communicate with?

Vagina via the external OS, Uterine body via the internal OS.

What do the Cervical Glands secrete?

Mucus that blocks sperm entry except during midcycle.

What are the three layers of the Uterine Wall?

Perimetrium, Myometrium, and Endometrium.

What is the Perimetrium?

Serous Layer (visceral peritoneum).

What is the Myometrium?

Interlacing layers of smooth muscle.

What is the Endometrium?

Mucosal Lining.

What is the Stratum Functionalis of the Endometrium?

Functional layer - changes in response to ovarian hormone cycles. Is shed during menstruation.

What is the Statrum Basalis (basal layer) of the Endometrium?

Forms new functionalis after menstruation. Unresponsive to ovarian hormones.

What is the Mons Pubis?

Fatty area overlying pubic symphysis.

What is the Labia Majora?

Hair covered, fatty skin folds.

What is the Labia Minora?

Skin folds lying within labia majora.

What is the Vestibule?

Translates as entrance hall: reces s between labia minora. Contains the openins of the vagina and urethra.

What are the Greater Vestibular Glands?

Homolgous to the bulbourethral glands. Release mucus into the vestibule for lubrication.

What is the Clitoris?

Erectile tissue hooded by a prepuce.

What is the exposed portion of the Clitoris?

Glans Clitoris.

What is the Perineum?

Diamond-shaped region between the pubic arch and coccyx, bordered laterally by the ischial tuberosities.

What is the site that is incised during an Episiotomy?

The Perineum.

What is Breast Cancer?

Cancer that usually arises from the epithelial cells of small ducts.

What are the risk factors of Breast Cancer?

Early onset of mestruation and late menopause, no pregnancies or first pregnancy late in life, family history of breast cancer.

What are the genes related to Breast Cancer?

BRCA1 and BRCA2.

What is the perecentage of cases that are hereditarily realated or Breast Cancer?

10%.

What percentage of women with breast cancer have no known risk factors?

70%.

How is Breast Cancer Treated?

Radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery followed by irradiation and chemotherapy.

What is Menopause?

Occurs when menses have creased for an entire year, no equivalent in males.

What does declining estrogen levels result in?

Atrophy of reproductive organs and breasts, irritability and depression in some, hot flashes as skin blood vessels undergo intense vasodilation, gradual thinning of the skin and bone loss, increased total blood cholesterol levels and falling HDL.

What are STI's?

Sexually transmitted diseases, or venereal diseases. The single most important cause of reproductive disroders.

What is Gonorrhea?

Bacterial Infection of mucosae of reproductive and urinary tracts.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Males?

Urethritis, painful urination, and discharge of pus.

What are the Signs and Symptoms of Gonorrhea in Females?

20% have no signs or symptoms. Abdominal discomfort, vaginal discharge or abnormal uterine bleeding. Can result in Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Sterility.

How is Gonorrhea treated?

Antibiotics, but resistant strains are becoming prevalent.

What is Syphilis?

Bacterial infection transmitted sexually occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex through direct contact with syphilis sore. Can be contracted or congential.

What happens to fetuses infected with Syphilis?

Stillborn or die shortly after.

What are the Symptoms of Syphilis?

Infection is asymptomatic for 2 - 3 weeks. A painless chancre appears at the site of infection and disappears in a few weeks.

How is Syphilis treated?

Penicillin.

What is Chlamydia?

Most common bacterial STI. More than 1.2 million cases were reported in 2008. Responsible for 25 - 50% of all diagnosed cases of PID.

What are the Symptoms of Chlamydia?

Urethritis, penile and vaginal discharges, abdominal, rectal, or testicular pain; painful intercourse; irregular menses. - Can cause arthritis and UTI in men and sterility in Woman.

How is Chlamydia treated?

Tetracyclime class drugs such as azithromycin (Zithromax), doxycycline or erythromycin.

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