# Certified Professional Photographer 2013

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Flashcards designed to help study for the Certified Professional Photographer exam. Original material courtesy of Heather Smith | Smith Photography & Design | www.smithphotodesign.com

Flat lighting

256

### An 8x10 at 240 ppi will have a resolution of what?

1920 pixels by 2400 pixels (4.6 million pixels)

four times more

### According to the rule of thirds, where should the important parts of an image fall?

Along the lines of an imaginary grid at intersecting points that divide the image into thirds horizontally and vertically

Infinity

### The amount of motion blur in an image will increase if you do what?

lengthen (or slow) the shutter speed

Depth of field

It increases

### As the aperture is stopped down, what happens to depth of field?

More of the background and foreground are sharp.

### Bit depth refers to what?

The amount of information contained in each pixel

Yellow

No

### A color image with smooth gradations requires at least what bit depth?

24 bits per pixel (8 per color), which gives 16,777,216 colors

### Color systems divide all colors into which three measurements?

Hue, Luminance, Saturation

### Contrast measures what in a print?

The difference between light and dark.

### Convex lenses cause light rays to do what?

bend toward each other and converge at the focal point.

Blue & Green

5,000 Kelvin

One stop

### A filter with a factor of 2 requires how many stops of compensation?

factor of 2 = 1 stop compensation. (Each time a factor doubles, it's one additional stop)

### Focal length controls what?

1) Magnification, or the size of the subject; 2) Angle of view

8 stops

1-1/2 to 2 stops

### Going clockwise around the color wheel, starting with RED, what is the progression of colors?

Red, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue, Magenta

Glossy paper

In the middle

### A histogram shows what in an image?

The brightness values of all the pixels in an image illustrated as a graph numbering from 0 to 255.

### A histogram with peaks on either end of the histogram and a deep valley in between represents what?

A high contrast image

### How can you change the brightness of the background when using flash?

Change the shutter speed. The longer the shutter speed, the lighter the background will be. The faster the shutter speed, the darker the background will be because less existing light is captured.

### How much resolution do you need for: Internet? Newspaper? Photographic print? Glossy magazine?

Internet = 72 ppi; Photographic print = 240-300 ppi; Gloss magazine = 400 ppi

### How would you define exposure in mathematical terms? (X times Y = exposure)

Intensity (aperture) x Time (shutter)

### If you must move to reduce the amount of flash reaching your subject, how far do you move?

To create a 1-stop difference, multiply the original distance by 1.4. Example - if you were originally 5 feet away, a 1-stop difference would have you step back to 7 feet.

### If you're working with an automatic camera and you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed, what mode are you working in?

Aperture-priority

Shutter-priority

5000K

A raster image

One stop less

Contrast

### In a digital image, the images file sizes corresponds to the total number of what in the image?

Total number of pixels

### In short lighting, where is the main light placed?

To strike the side of the face away from the camera.

### In the 20th century, black & white photographers used the Zone system to tame excessive contrast. Now, digital photographers use what?

High Dynamic Range

### An in-camera reflected meter reading a very dark scene indicates an exposure of 1/250th at f/8. For a correct exposure, what should you do?

Use negative exposure compensation (underexpose). The meter will attempt to make the dark scene 18% grey, underexpose to bring it back to dark.

### An in-camera reflected meter reading a very light toned scene indicates an exposure of 1/250th at f/8. For a correct exposure, what should you do?

Use positive exposure compensation (overexposure). A reflected meter reading will attempt to make the scene 18% gray - employ overexposure to adjust.

### An incident-exposure reading for a fair-skinned subject reads f/8, 1/125th at 100 ISO. The next subject is very dark skinned. What is the proper exposure for the second subject?

No change. The EXPOSURE doesn't change or it would also change the background as well. Move the lights to adjust.

### A lens set at f/4 admits how much more/less light than one set at f/2.8?

Half as much light

Fisheye

### A magic wand tool is used for what?

Selecting portions of the image based on color

### Maximum depth of field at a given aperture is achieved by focusing at what?

Hyperfocal distance. A lens focused at the hyperfocal distance has depth of field extending from approximately half the hyperfocal distance to infinity, whereas a lens focused at infinity has a depth of field only at infinity.

Yellow

### Most lenses are sharpest closed down to how many stops from the widest?

1 or 2, depending on the lens, could be 2 to 3.

### Name 2 ways you can decrease depth of field

1) Use a longer lens; 2) Move closer to the subject

### Name two ways you can increase depth of field (other than changing aperture)

1) Use a shorter focal length; 2) Move farther away from the subject

### A normal (or standard) focal length lens approximates what?

The impression of human visual perspective

### Panning does what?

Keeps a moving subject sharp while blurring the background

### Perspective is affected by what?

lens-to-subject distance

### Photoshop's command for a simple way to start using color balance is what?

Variations command

8 bits

### Printers use what set of colors?

Subtractive primaries (plus black)

### The quantity of light that reaches your sensor is controlled by what?

Shutter speed & aperture

### The relative aperture is equal to the lens focal length divided by what?

aperture diameter

### Resolution refers to what?

The number of pixels per unit of length in a image

### A ring of thin, overlapping leaves located inside the lens is called what?

The diaphragm - the mechanism that controls aperture.

9

Aperture

### An SLR camera uses what to allow you to see exactly what you'll photograph?

A mirror and pentaprism

Bit

### Stopping a lens down from f/8 to f/16 represents a X stop difference

Two (f/8 > f/11 > f/16)

Blown highlights

### The term "ISO speed" is used to describe what?

The sensor's sensitivity to light

Zoom lens

### This kind of meter is preferred by photographers working in a studio situation where lighting conditions can be altered

Incident light meter

Snoot

### This stores electronic images captured in a digital camera until they can be transferred to a computer

Memory card / flash card / compact flash card

RAID system

JPEG

### This viewing option gives you the most accurate size version of your image in Photoshop

Actual Pixel view

### To emphasize texture in a portrait, what kind of light source is recommended?

Small light source at an angle brushing across the subject

### To minimize facial wrinkles, this type of lighting is best

Diffused front lighting

Lower

False.

3200 Kelvin

### The useable exposure range of a sensor, or the range of subject brightness is called what?

dynamic range (not to be confused with gamut)

### Using this kind of automatic exposure setting on the camera, you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed

Aperture-Priority

Shutter-Priority

### What angle of view does a reflected light meter read?

Similar to a normal lens at about 30 degrees

### What angle of view does a spot meter read?

Maybe as little as 0.5 degrees or 1 degree

### What angle of view does an incident meter read?

Very wide at about 180 degrees

### What angle should a polarizing filter be to the sun for best results?

90 degrees. If using to eliminate reflections, it should be used at 35 degrees.

### What are IPTC fields used for?

Metadata fields that hold info on photographer, subject, and usage.

### What are luminance and illuminance?

Luminance is light reflected from the subject surface (measured by a reflected-light meter), while Illuminance is light falling on a subject surface (as measured with an incident light meter)

### What are quad- and hex- tone printing?

Inkjet black & white printing where color cartridges are replaced with shades of gray, resulting in smooth tones and slight color cast

### What are the effects of lighting from above the subject's face?

Creates deep shadows in eye pockets, under nose, and chin.

### What are the three main factors that affect depth of field?

Aperture, focal length, and distance to the subject

Blue

Magenta

Cyan

### What determines what will be a 'normal' focal length lens on a particular camera?

Sensor size - the larger the sensor size, the longer the focal length of a normal lens. (Corresponds to a diagonal line across the frame)

Black (0)

White (255)

### What does a neutral density filter do?

Absorbs equal quantities of all wavelengths of light. It allows you to use wider apertures or slower shutter speeds without changing color balance.

### What does ISO stand for?

International Standards Organization

### What does side lighting emphasize on a subject or surface?

emphasizes textures

### What does the term "stop" mean?

A change in exposure of 1 EV, that is 1/2 or 2x the amount of light.

Jpg

### What is a BIT?

The smallest unit of information consisting of either a 1 or a zero. It can only represent two possibilities - either yes or no, black or white.

### What is a BYTE?

An 8-BIT sequence that represents 256 possibilities - black & white & 254 shades of grey. The size of a file is the number of bytes it contains.

### What is a color profile?

A mathematical translator assigned to each piece of equipment you use (they map one gamut to another; and the ICC (or International Color Consortium) profile is usually shipped by the equipment manufacturer).

### What is a derivative file?

A RAW file that has been altered

### What is a flag?

Also called a gobo; it is a small panel usually mounted on a stand that shades some part of the subject or shields the lens from light that could cause flare

### What is burning?

Selectively increasing print exposure, which will make select parts of the image darker

### What is dodging?

Decreases the exposure for areas of the print that the photographer wishes to be lighter

### What is focal length, technically?

The distance between the lens rear nodal point and the focal plane when the lens is focused at infinity.

### What is gamut?

The entire range of colors that can be seen, reproduced, or captured. Our eyes have a greater gamut than a print or monitor.

### What is interpolated resolution?

Interpolated resolution can be generated by Photoshop or any image editing software to increase print size resolution.

### What is the Aperture in a lens?

The size of the opening in the lens which controls the amount of light reaching the sensor.

sRGB

### What is the color temperature of direct sunlight?

Direct sun at 5400 to 6,500 Kelvin

### What is the effect of front lighting?

Flattens out the volume of the subject and minimizes textures

### What is the general rule of thumb for the measurement of a 'normal' lens?

The diagonal measurement of the sensor.

### What is the inverse square law?

The intensity of the illumination is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from light to subject. At twice the distance from the subject, the light illuminates only 1/4 of the original.

Parallax

### What is the Rule of Two?

Whenever you have two of something (i.e Body parts) put them on slightly different levels

ISO

Metamerism

Dynamic range

### What is TTL?

Through the Lens. A camera that can automatically control flash exposure using sensors inside the camera.

Infrared

### What kind of light will be produced when using a large white umbrella close to a subject?

flat, low contrast light

Short lighting.

Short lighting

### What kind of lighting pattern places the key light directly in front of and higher than the face?

Butterfly lighting

### What kind of meter is built in to most cameras?

Reflected light meter

Lasso tool

### What two camera controls adjust the amount of light that reaches the sensor?

Aperture and shutter

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