Certified Professional Photographer 2013

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Flashcards designed to help study for the Certified Professional Photographer exam. Original material courtesy of Heather Smith | Smith Photography & Design | www.smithphotodesign.com

A 1:1 lighting ratio produces what lighting result?

Flat lighting

8 bits per pixel gives you how many colors?

256

An 8x10 at 240 ppi will have a resolution of what?

1920 pixels by 2400 pixels (4.6 million pixels)

According to the Inverse Square Law, at a distance of 10 feet from a flash, the area illuminated receives how much more/less light than the area illuminated at 20 feet from the flash?

four times more

According to the rule of thirds, where should the important parts of an image fall?

Along the lines of an imaginary grid at intersecting points that divide the image into thirds horizontally and vertically

All objects beyond the closest distance in focus will be sharp when this appears within the DOF scale

Infinity

The amount of motion blur in an image will increase if you do what?

lengthen (or slow) the shutter speed

The area of acceptable sharpness in an image is called what?

Depth of field

As the aperture becomes smaller, what happens to the depth of field?

It increases

As the aperture is stopped down, what happens to depth of field?

More of the background and foreground are sharp.

Bit depth refers to what?

The amount of information contained in each pixel

Blue is opposite what color on the color wheel?

Yellow

Can you save layers in a JPEG file format?

No

A color image with smooth gradations requires at least what bit depth?

24 bits per pixel (8 per color), which gives 16,777,216 colors

Color systems divide all colors into which three measurements?

Hue, Luminance, Saturation

Contrast measures what in a print?

The difference between light and dark.

Convex lenses cause light rays to do what?

bend toward each other and converge at the focal point.

Cyan is composed of equal parts of what two colors?

Blue & Green

Daylight is approximately what color temperature?

5,000 Kelvin

Digital cameras use what set of primary colors?

Additive (R, G, B)

Doubling the aperture setting creates how many stops difference in the amount of light reaching the sensor?

One stop

A filter with a factor of 2 requires how many stops of compensation?

factor of 2 = 1 stop compensation. (Each time a factor doubles, it's one additional stop)

Focal length controls what?

1) Magnification, or the size of the subject; 2) Angle of view

A general purpose lens will provide an f-stop range of up to how many?

8 stops

Generally, how much exposure compensation (in stops) should be used when using a polarizing filter?

1-1/2 to 2 stops

Going clockwise around the color wheel, starting with RED, what is the progression of colors?

Red, Yellow, Green, Cyan, Blue, Magenta

The greatest tonal range from black to white is achievable on what kind of paper?

Glossy paper

The histogram of a properly exposed grey card will show a vertical bar where on the histogram?

In the middle

A histogram shows what in an image?

The brightness values of all the pixels in an image illustrated as a graph numbering from 0 to 255.

A histogram with peaks on either end of the histogram and a deep valley in between represents what?

A high contrast image

How can you change the brightness of the background when using flash?

Change the shutter speed. The longer the shutter speed, the lighter the background will be. The faster the shutter speed, the darker the background will be because less existing light is captured.

How much resolution do you need for: Internet? Newspaper? Photographic print? Glossy magazine?

Internet = 72 ppi; Photographic print = 240-300 ppi; Gloss magazine = 400 ppi

How would you define exposure in mathematical terms? (X times Y = exposure)

Intensity (aperture) x Time (shutter)

If an image is too blue, what color adjustment should be made in Photoshop to correct it?

Add yellow

If an image is too cyan, what color adjustment should be made in Photoshop to correct it?

Add red

If an image is too green, what color adjustment should be made in Photoshop to correct it?

Add magenta

If an image is too magenta, what color adjustment should be made in Photoshop to correct it?

Add green

If an image is too red, what color adjustment should be made in Photoshop to correct it?

Add cyan

If an image is too yellow, what color adjustment should be made in Photoshop to correct it?

Add blue

If you must move to reduce the amount of flash reaching your subject, how far do you move?

To create a 1-stop difference, multiply the original distance by 1.4. Example - if you were originally 5 feet away, a 1-stop difference would have you step back to 7 feet.

If you're working with an automatic camera and you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed, what mode are you working in?

Aperture-priority

If you're working with an automatic camera and you set the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture, what mode are you working in?

Shutter-priority

If your print will be viewed mostly under window light, what is the suggested Kelvin temperature of the lights you should use to evaluate your print?

5000K

An image made of pixels is sometimes called what?

A raster image

In a 2:1 ratio, the shadow side of the subject would meter at X stop(s) less than the highlight side

One stop less

In a curves adjustment layer, what does the shape of the curve indicate?

Contrast

In a digital image, the images file sizes corresponds to the total number of what in the image?

Total number of pixels

In short lighting, where is the main light placed?

To strike the side of the face away from the camera.

In the 20th century, black & white photographers used the Zone system to tame excessive contrast. Now, digital photographers use what?

High Dynamic Range

An in-camera reflected meter reading a very dark scene indicates an exposure of 1/250th at f/8. For a correct exposure, what should you do?

Use negative exposure compensation (underexpose). The meter will attempt to make the dark scene 18% grey, underexpose to bring it back to dark.

An in-camera reflected meter reading a very light toned scene indicates an exposure of 1/250th at f/8. For a correct exposure, what should you do?

Use positive exposure compensation (overexposure). A reflected meter reading will attempt to make the scene 18% gray - employ overexposure to adjust.

An incident-exposure reading for a fair-skinned subject reads f/8, 1/125th at 100 ISO. The next subject is very dark skinned. What is the proper exposure for the second subject?

No change. The EXPOSURE doesn't change or it would also change the background as well. Move the lights to adjust.

Instead of permanently altering your image when adjusting for color and value, what should you do?

Use and adjustment layer

A lens set at f/4 admits how much more/less light than one set at f/2.8?

Half as much light

A lens with a very wide angle of view and produces extreme barrel distortion is what kind of lens?

Fisheye

A magic wand tool is used for what?

Selecting portions of the image based on color

Maximum depth of field at a given aperture is achieved by focusing at what?

Hyperfocal distance. A lens focused at the hyperfocal distance has depth of field extending from approximately half the hyperfocal distance to infinity, whereas a lens focused at infinity has a depth of field only at infinity.

Most inkjet printers intended for photographic printing include light and dark inks of all of the colors except for one. Which color ink is usually available only in one density?

Yellow

Most lenses are sharpest closed down to how many stops from the widest?

1 or 2, depending on the lens, could be 2 to 3.

Name 2 ways you can decrease depth of field

1) Use a longer lens; 2) Move closer to the subject

Name 3 ways to make a tonal adjustment in Photoshop

Curves adjustment; Levels adjustment; Brighteness/Contrast adjustment

Name two ways you can increase depth of field (other than changing aperture)

1) Use a shorter focal length; 2) Move farther away from the subject

A normal (or standard) focal length lens approximates what?

The impression of human visual perspective

Panning does what?

Keeps a moving subject sharp while blurring the background

Perspective is affected by what?

lens-to-subject distance

Photoshop's command for a simple way to start using color balance is what?

Variations command

Printers use how many bits per channel of information when printing?

8 bits

Printers use what set of colors?

Subtractive primaries (plus black)

The quantity of light that reaches your sensor is controlled by what?

Shutter speed & aperture

The relative aperture is equal to the lens focal length divided by what?

aperture diameter

Resolution refers to what?

The number of pixels per unit of length in a image

A ring of thin, overlapping leaves located inside the lens is called what?

The diaphragm - the mechanism that controls aperture.

The rule of thirds necessitates that the composition be divided into a grid of now many equal rectangles or squares?

9

Sharpness from near to far is controlled by what?

Aperture

An SLR camera uses what to allow you to see exactly what you'll photograph?

A mirror and pentaprism

The smallest unit of digital information is called a what?

Bit

Stopping a lens down from f/8 to f/16 represents a X stop difference

Two (f/8 > f/11 > f/16)

A tall vertical line on the right hand edge of a histogram indicates what?

Blown highlights

A technique used to maintain sharp focus on a subject that is moving toward you is called what?

Follow focus

The term "ISO speed" is used to describe what?

The sensor's sensitivity to light

This kind of lens has a variable focal length

Zoom lens

This kind of meter is preferred by photographers working in a studio situation where lighting conditions can be altered

Incident light meter

This light modifier can be used to spotlight a specific area of the subject or background.

Snoot

This stores electronic images captured in a digital camera until they can be transferred to a computer

Memory card / flash card / compact flash card

This technique allows you to keep a subject that is moving toward you well focused

Follow focus

This type of data backup system is fault-tolerant because it creates and stores redundant data

RAID system

This type of file format compresses images by discarding pixels; therefore, each time an images is compressed, it loses pixels

JPEG

This viewing option gives you the most accurate size version of your image in Photoshop

Actual Pixel view

To emphasize texture in a portrait, what kind of light source is recommended?

Small light source at an angle brushing across the subject

To minimize facial wrinkles, this type of lighting is best

Diffused front lighting

To produce optimal sharpness, detail, and resolution, is a higher or lower ISO setting better?

Lower

True or false - a tonal correction can be accomplished by using a hue/saturation adjustment layer

False.

Tungsten light is approximately what color temperature?

3200 Kelvin

The useable exposure range of a sensor, or the range of subject brightness is called what?

dynamic range (not to be confused with gamut)

Using this kind of automatic exposure setting on the camera, you set the aperture and the camera sets the shutter speed

Aperture-Priority

Using this kind of automatic exposure setting on the camera, you set the shutter speed and the camera sets the aperture

Shutter-Priority

What angle of view does a reflected light meter read?

Similar to a normal lens at about 30 degrees

What angle of view does a spot meter read?

Maybe as little as 0.5 degrees or 1 degree

What angle of view does an incident meter read?

Very wide at about 180 degrees

What angle should a polarizing filter be to the sun for best results?

90 degrees. If using to eliminate reflections, it should be used at 35 degrees.

What are IPTC fields used for?

Metadata fields that hold info on photographer, subject, and usage.

What are luminance and illuminance?

Luminance is light reflected from the subject surface (measured by a reflected-light meter), while Illuminance is light falling on a subject surface (as measured with an incident light meter)

What are quad- and hex- tone printing?

Inkjet black & white printing where color cartridges are replaced with shades of gray, resulting in smooth tones and slight color cast

What are the effects of lighting from above the subject's face?

Creates deep shadows in eye pockets, under nose, and chin.

What are the three main factors that affect depth of field?

Aperture, focal length, and distance to the subject

What color is between Magenta and Cyan on the color wheel?

Blue

What color is opposite Green on the color wheel?

Magenta

What color is opposite Red on the color wheel?

Cyan

What determines what will be a 'normal' focal length lens on a particular camera?

Sensor size - the larger the sensor size, the longer the focal length of a normal lens. (Corresponds to a diagonal line across the frame)

What do the bars on the left of a histogram represent?

Black (0)

What do the bars on the right of a histogram represent?

White (255)

What does a neutral density filter do?

Absorbs equal quantities of all wavelengths of light. It allows you to use wider apertures or slower shutter speeds without changing color balance.

What does ISO stand for?

International Standards Organization

What does side lighting emphasize on a subject or surface?

emphasizes textures

What does the term "stop" mean?

A change in exposure of 1 EV, that is 1/2 or 2x the amount of light.

What file type affects printing when a 5th generation is used?

Jpg

What image adjustment tool uses a histogram display to alter an image?

Levels adjustment

What is a BIT?

The smallest unit of information consisting of either a 1 or a zero. It can only represent two possibilities - either yes or no, black or white.

What is a BYTE?

An 8-BIT sequence that represents 256 possibilities - black & white & 254 shades of grey. The size of a file is the number of bytes it contains.

What is a color profile?

A mathematical translator assigned to each piece of equipment you use (they map one gamut to another; and the ICC (or International Color Consortium) profile is usually shipped by the equipment manufacturer).

What is a derivative file?

A RAW file that has been altered

What is a flag?

Also called a gobo; it is a small panel usually mounted on a stand that shades some part of the subject or shields the lens from light that could cause flare

What is burning?

Selectively increasing print exposure, which will make select parts of the image darker

What is dodging?

Decreases the exposure for areas of the print that the photographer wishes to be lighter

What is focal length, technically?

The distance between the lens rear nodal point and the focal plane when the lens is focused at infinity.

What is gamut?

The entire range of colors that can be seen, reproduced, or captured. Our eyes have a greater gamut than a print or monitor.

What is interpolated resolution?

Interpolated resolution can be generated by Photoshop or any image editing software to increase print size resolution.

What is the Aperture in a lens?

The size of the opening in the lens which controls the amount of light reaching the sensor.

What is the best color profile for web images?

sRGB

What is the color temperature of direct sunlight?

Direct sun at 5400 to 6,500 Kelvin

What is the effect of front lighting?

Flattens out the volume of the subject and minimizes textures

What is the general rule of thumb for the measurement of a 'normal' lens?

The diagonal measurement of the sensor.

What is the inverse square law?

The intensity of the illumination is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from light to subject. At twice the distance from the subject, the light illuminates only 1/4 of the original.

What is the name of the issue that prevents you from seeing exactly what the lens sees when using a rangefinder camera at close distances?

Parallax

What is the Rule of Two?

Whenever you have two of something (i.e Body parts) put them on slightly different levels

What is the term used to describe a sensor's sensitivity to light?

ISO

What is the term used to describe data contained in a digital image?

Metadata

What is the term used to describe human's change in perception of a color under different light sources?

Metamerism

What is the usable exposure range, or range of subject brightness called?

Dynamic range

What is TTL?

Through the Lens. A camera that can automatically control flash exposure using sensors inside the camera.

What kind of film can help reduce haze in a landscape?

Infrared

What kind of light will be produced when using a large white umbrella close to a subject?

flat, low contrast light

What kind of lighting pattern is best for average oval faces and round faces you want to slim?

Short lighting.

What kind of lighting pattern is useful to narrow a face?

Short lighting

What kind of lighting pattern is useful to widen a subject?

Broad lighting

What kind of lighting pattern places the key light directly in front of and higher than the face?

Butterfly lighting

What kind of meter is built in to most cameras?

Reflected light meter

What Photoshop tool allows you to select an area of any size or shape by drawing freehand?

Lasso tool

What two camera controls adjust the amount of light that reaches the sensor?

Aperture and shutter

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