connection of two tubular structures, such as between bloodvessels or two pieces of the intestine
Localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery; due to a congenital defect or weakness in the wall of the vessel. The ballooning out of an artery wall at a point where it has grown weak
Severe pain around the heart caused by a relative deficiency of oxygen supply to the heart muscle. It occurs most often after increased activity, exercise, or a stressful event. Pain or numbness typically radiates to the left shoulder and down left arm & may radiate to the back or jaw
controls water loss and urine output
The largest artery in the body; it conducts freshly oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
hardening of the arteries
Irregularity or loss of rhythm
surgical connection between arteries
removal of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexible catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity causing a slowing of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure withing the walls of the vessels; used to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
The main artery of the arm; a continuation of the axillary artery on the inside of the arm
slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute
Calcium channel blockers
any of a group of drugs that slow the influx of calcium ions into muscle cells, resulting in decreased arterial resistance and decreased myocardial oxygen demand. These drugs are used in treating angina, hypertension, and supraventricular tachycardia, but may cause hypotension.
any of the minute blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules; bringing nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products
irregular heart rhythm caused by defects in teh intrinsic conduction system
inflammation of the heart
an abnormal enlargement of the heart. IT is generally categorized in the following manner; Cardiomegaly due to dilation, Cardiomegaly due to ventricular hypertrophy: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH): Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH): Left atrial enlargement
Literally means limping in Latin. To limp, pain in a limb (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply
Congestive Heart Failure
Condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with blood or pump a sufficient amount of blood through the body.
Coronary artery bypass graft
open-heart surgery in which the rib cage is opened and a section of a blood vessel is grafted from the aorta to the coronary artery to bypass artherosclerosis narrowings and improve the blood supply to the coronary circulation supplying the myocardium(heart muscle).
Coronary artery disease
Narrowing of the lumen of one or more the coronary arteries, due to artherosclerosis; myocardial ischemia, can cause congestive heart failure, angina or myocardial infarction
reduced circulatory supply due to partial or complete blockage of coronary arteries
Coronary occlusion by thrombosis formation [obstruction of blood flow in a coronary artery by a blood clot (thrombus)], usually the result of atheromatous changes in the arterial wall and usually leading to myocardial infarction.,
A dark blue or purple discoloration of the skin, nail beds, lips or mucous membrane.(can be secondary to heart failure)
Excretion of urine; commonly denotes production of unusually large volumes
An accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells, tissues or serous activities.
Graphic record/representation of cardiac action-currents obtained with a cardiograph. Checks hearts electrical activity.
A blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposit, or other object that has been carried in the bloodstream to lodge in a vessel and cause an embolism.
Inflammation of the lining membrane of the heart/endocardium. It is usually confined to the covering of a valve and sometimes to the lining membrane of the chambers.
One of a specialized group of cytokines that is produced by the kidneys and stimulates the proliferation of RBC in the bone marrow. Ex)Pharmacological use this for patients with depressed bone marrow function following cancer chemotherapy, bone marrow transplantation etc.
Hypertension with no known cause; accounts for 90-95% of patients diagnosed with hypertension
is a condition in which the heart can no longer pump enough blood to tissue and organs
abnormal unusually periodic sound heard on occillation of heart or blood vessel.
A varicose condition of the external or internal rectal veins causing painful swelling at the anus
the presence of an abnormal amount of cholesterol in the cells and plasma of the blood
Low blood pressure. Sub-normal arterial blood pressure. Reduced pressure of tension of any kind.
Elevated blood pressure. Generally established guidelines are values exceeding 140 systolic over 90 diastolic. Could cause heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease.
(Oxia=oxygen; hypo=low) lower than normal levels of oxygen in inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissue, short of anoxia (no oxygen)
the process of flowing
the wall of tissues that separate the right and left atrium.
Mitral Valve prolapse
Protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left artium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood causing a characteristic murmur heard on auscultation
Inflammation of the mitral valve
An abnormal, usually periodic, sound heard on auscultation of the heart or blood vessels
A heart attack. Sudden insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to an area of the heart muscle, usually as a result of occlusion(the blockage or closing of a blood vessel or organ) of a coronary artery
the blockage or closing of a blood vessel or organ
Irregular pulsations of the heart perceptible to the patient, usually with an increase in frequency or force with or without irregularity in the rhythm
Patent ductus arteriosis
when the normal channels between the pulmonary artery and the aorta fails to close at birth
the property of something that can be pervaded by a liquid (as by osmosis or diffusion)
inflammation of the pericardium
(centisis=surgical puncture) needle drainage of the pericardium, usually accompanied by placement of an indwelling catheter for continued draining.
incision into a vein for the purpose of drawing blood
one of two arteries (branches of the pulmonary trunk) that carry venous blood from the heart to the lungs
Spasm of the digital arteries, with blanching numbness or pain of the fingers, often precipitated by cold. Fingers become variably red, whit and blue.
An instrument for measuring arterial blood pressure indirectly, consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge.
A severe disturbance of hemodynamics in which the circulatory system fails to maintain adequate perfusion of vital organs; may be due to reduction of blood volume, cardiac failure, or dilation of the vascular system in toxemia or septicemia
Any acute clinical event, related to impairment of cerebral circulation that last longer than 24 hours
Tetralogy of Fallot
A set of congenital cardiac defects including ventricular septal defect, pulmonic valve stenosis, or infundibular stenosis, and dextraposition of the aorta so that it overrides the ventricular and recieves venous as well as arterial blood. Right ventricular hypertrophy is considered art of the tetralogy.
A clot in the cardiovascular system formed during life from constituents of blood; it may be occlusive or attached to the vessel or heart wall without obstructing the lumen, AKA blood clot
the process of breaking up and dissolving blood clots
The mass of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that normally acts as the pacemaker of the cardiac conduction system; ;it lies under the epicardium at the upper end of the sulcus terminalis.
The electrical potential difference (voltage) across a cell's plasma membrane
Refers to rapid beating of the heart. By convention it is defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute in adults
are veins that have become enlarged and twisted
Valvular Heart Disease (VHD)
any disease process involving one or more of the valves of the heart (aortic and mitral valves on the left and the pulmonary and tricuspid valves on the right)
Plastic surgery to repair a valve, especially a cardiac valve
an agent that causes dilation of the blood vessels. A drug that relaxes the smooth muscle walls of the blood vessels and increases their diameter. Decreases blood pressure
One of two large veins returning blood from the peripheral circulation to the right atrium of the heart. Superior and Inferior