AP Psychology Chapter 14

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94 terms · The penultimate test!

The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to


individualism is most likely to be emphasized in

north america

Regarding the self-serving bias, humanistic psychologists have emphasized that self affirming thinking

is generally adaptive to the individual because it maintains selfconfidence and minimizes depression

Karen horney, a prominent neofreudian disputed freuds assumption that women

have weak superegos

which of the following is the correct order of psychosexual stages proposed by freud?

oral; anal; phallic; latency; genital

melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because she said, "you could better spend the time playing with our kids." melissa's comment best illustrates


people who are challenged by severe physical disabilities are likely to maintain normal levels of self-esteem by

comparing themselves with others who are similarly disabled

carl rogers suggested that the _____ is a central feature of personality

inferiority complex

professor shankar believes that her students most important personal characteristics are those that distinguishe them as uniquely different from most other people. her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of


dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shockes developed

learned helplessness

carol was informed by a professional palm reader: "you generally communicated openly with others, but you have certain dark secrets that even your closest friends could never guess." the fact that carol was impressed by the palm readers insight into her personality best illustrates

the barnum effect

the big five personality factors are

emotional stability, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness

a psychologist at the campus mental health center administered an empirically derived personality test to diagnose an emotionally troubled student. which test did the psychologiest most likely administer?

the MMPI

two-year-old donald frequently refuses to obey his parents because he derives immense pleasure from demonstrating his independence. freud would have suggested tht donald is going through the ____ stage of development


one night after he heard his parents arguin, 4 yr old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. a psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei's dream reflects a(n)

Oedipus complex

freud observed that certain symptoms of illness were relieved when patients talked freely about their past. this lead freud to suspect that these symptoms resulted from

psychologilcal processes

abraham maslow studied the lives of abraham lincoln, thomas jefferson, and eleanor roosevelt in order to understand the nature of

self actualization

an example of the self serving bias described in the text is the tendency of people to

do both a and b
(see themselves as better than average on nearly any desirable dimention)
(accept more responsibility for successes than failures)

andrew's grandfather, who has lived a rich and productive life, is a spontaneous, loving, and self accepting person. maslow might say that he

is a self actualizeing person

coretta is quiet, pessimistic, and moody. in terms of eysencks' basic personality dimensions she would be classified as


mr. hendriks, a high school teacher, washes the chalkboard and realigns student desks in precise rows before every class. according to the psychoanalytic perspective, mr hendriks is most likely fixated at the ______ stage.


individuals with high self esteem are more likely than those with low self esteem to

have a strong ego

when professor thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he recieved from people simply because he was a retired college professor. his sense of surprise suggests that he had not previously lived in a culture that valued

reciprocal determinism

because mr. maloney trusts his employees, he treats them very kindly. his kindness leads themm to work diligently on his behalf, which in turn increases his trust in them. this pattern of trust, kindness, diligence, and increasing trust illustrates what is meant by

reciprocal determinism

a willingness to switch jobs and move from one part of the country to another best illustrates one of the consequences of


henry murray found that children's perceptions of photographs were biased by their previous participation in a frightening game. their perceptual reactions most clearly highlighted the potential value of

projective tests

when 16 yr old Hafez received a large inheritence from his grandfather, he was tempted to purchase and exxpensive new car. he decided instead to deposit all the money ina savings account for his college education. hafez shows signs of a

strong ego

bill is muscular and physically strong. sheldon would classify him as

a mesomorphic type

in one survey, americans were more optimistic that they themselves would go to heaven than would michael jordan or bill clinton. this best illustrates

self serving bias

a person whose self esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to

criticize the shortcomings of others

according to the psychoanalytic perspective, a child who frequently "slips" and calls her teacher "mom" probably

has some unresolved conflicts concerning her mother

ffreud suggested that the process of identification is most directly responsible for the development of

the superego

research on self perception indicates that most people

view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others

according to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the

ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized

a psychoanalyst would characterize a person who is impulsive and self indulgent as prossessing a strong ____ and a weak ______

id; superego

jill has a biting, sarcastic manner. according to freud she is

fixated in the oral stage in development

the defense mechanism by which people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities is


compared to those in collectivist cultures, people in individualist cultures

have all of the above characteristics

for his class presentation, bruse plans to discuss the big five personality factors used by people throughout the world to describe others or themselves. which of the following is not a factor that bruce will discuss?


humanistic theorists have been criticized for

underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors

maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values itno his study of self actualized individuals by

selectively studying people with qualities he admired

which of the following statements about self esteem is not correct

people with low self esteem tent to be nonconformists

japanest students are more likely than american students to describe themselves in terms of their

social identites

which neoFreudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development


after experiencing inescapable brutalities as a prisoner in a nazi concentration camp, mr sternberg became apathetic, stoppped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. mr sternbergs reaction most clearly illustrates

learned helplessness

research onthe locus of control indicates that internals are _________ than externals

better able to come with stress

which of the following tests was empirically derived


projective tests are most closely associated with the _____ perspective


four year old timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. however, he starts bed wetting again soon after his sister is born. timmys behavior best illustrates


mrs smith, who is white and unconsciously in favor of racial segregation, teller her friends that most blacker prefer to live in residential neighborhoods inhabited predominantly by blacks. according to psychoanalytic theory, mrs smith best illustrates


athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. this best illustrates

self serving bias

dr gonzales believes that most students can be classified as a Type A or Type B according to the intensities of their personalities and competitiveness. evidently, dr gonzales is working within the ______ perspective


freud emphasized that emotional healing is associated with the

recovery of repressed memories

because you have a relatively low level of brain arousal, a trait theorist would suggest that you are a(n) _____ who would naturally seek _____.

extravert; stimulation

according to psychoanalytic theory, boys fear of castration is most closely associated with

the Oedipus complex

the tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as

the barnum effect

freud suggested that Leonardo da Vinci's paintings of Madonnas could be traced back to his desire for intimacty with his own mother. According to Freud, da Vincis artistry provides an example of


freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrate an imcomplete


for humanistic psychologists, many of our attitudes and behaviors are ultimately shaped wy whether out ______is ___ or _____.

self concept; positive; negative

in studying personality, a trait theorist would most likely:

use a personality inventory

a psychotherapist instructs david to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. the therapist is using a technique known as

free association

which of the following is mostl likely to contribute to raising ones self esteem?

self serving bias

recent research on the big five personality factors provides evidence that

some tendencies decrease during adulthood, whild others incerase

researchers found that new life insurance representatives were less likely to quit during their first year on the job if the demonstrated the trait of


the text defines personality as

an individuals vharacteristic pattern of thnking, feeling, and acting

randys substandard academic performance is both a result and a cause of his feelings of academic inferiority. this best illustrates the importance of

reciprocal determinism

when she was eight years old, inge was sexually abused by her uncle. at 14, inge feld uncomfortable whenever she was his uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. a psychoanalyst would most likely suggest that inge is using hte defense mechanism of


freuds theory of personality has been criticized because it

offers few testable predictions that allow one to determine its validity

during the early psychosexual stages, the id derives pleasure from distinct

erogenous zones

sexually active undergraduate women perceive themselves as much less likely to experience an unwanted pregnancy than other women at their university. this best illlustrates

unrealistic optimism

if we are nervous about our personal appearance after adopting a new hairstyle, we are likely to ______ the extent to which others notice our nervousness and we are likely to ______ the extent to which they notice our new hairstyle

overestimate.\ overestimate

the myers-briggs type indicator classifies people according to personality types identified by

carl jung

humanistic psychologists would most likely be critized for underestimating the value of

social influence

santa claus is to superman as _____ is to ______

endomorph ; mesomorph

recent research has provided more supprt for defense mechanisms such as ______ than for defense mechanisms such as _______

reaction formation; sublimation

Children who have witnessed a parent's murder report memories that most clearly challenge Freud's concept of:
A. displacement.
B. repression.
C. the Oedipus complex.
D. reaction formation.

B repression

Freud's analogy about the conscious and unconscious mind


The use of free association is central to the process of


According to Freud the unconscious is

the thoughts wishes feelings and memories of which we are largely unaware

According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the


According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the _______ stage.


Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stave as:


what is a thematic apperception test (TAT)

a projective test, whereby individuals are presented with ambiguous pictures and asked to generate a story from them, thereby reveal personality characteristics, motivation for power, achievement and affiliation, and in a clinical setting, any underlying emotional problems.

The Big Five personality factors are:

neuroticism, extroversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness

The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to be almost anyone is known as

the Barnum Effect

Compared to those with an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to:

cope effectively with stress

The perception that one's fate is determined by luck reflects:

an external locus of control

Learned helplessness is most likely to contribute to:

an external locus of control

Neo-Freudian personality theorists were most likely to disagree with Freud about the importance of:

childhood sexual instincts

Projective tests are most closely associated with the _____ perspective.


Anal Stage (summary)

Major focus of sexual interest is anus; control of body functions is major feature.

Anal retentive

used conversationally to describe a person who pays such attention to detail that the obsession becomes an annoyance to others

How does Martin Seligman's positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective?

its focuses on the individual and community to thrive unlike humanistic that focuses on the self and the bad qualities of themselves and the methodology is scientific

Alfred Adler

Believed in the inferiority complex. Didn't believe that childhood sexual tensions were crucial for personality formation. Believed that much of our behavior is driven by efforts to conquer feelings of inferiority.

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