Food and Nutrition (comprehensive- ALL UNITS)

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Absorption

the passage of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract into either the blood or the tissue fluid surrounding the cells

Amino acid

one of the building blocks of protein molecules

Appetite

a desire to eat

Calorie

a measurement of the amount of energy produced when food is burned by the body; In science, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1.0 g of water 1.0 degrees Celsius.

Deficiency disease

a disease caused by the lack of a specific necessary element in the body; examples include pellagra, rickets, anemia, goiter,kwashiorkor, night blindness and osteoporosis

Fat soluble vitamin

vitamins that are absorbed and transported by fats; includes vitamins A, D, E and K

Diabetes mellitus

lack of or inability to use the hormone insulin, which results in the guild up of glucose in the bloodstream

Digestion

the process by which the body breaks down food into useable nutrients

Fallacy

a mistaken belief

Glucose

type of simple sugar; The body's primary energy source and the only energy source for the brain and nervous system; the basic sugar moleculefrom which all other carbohydrates are built.

Malnutrition

poor nutrition over an extended period of time which can be caused by an inadequate diet or the body

Metabolism

the process by which living cells use nutrients in many chemical reactions that provide energy for vital processes and activities

Nutrient

chemical substances in food that help to maintain the body

Nutrition

the study of nutrients and how they are used by the body

Obesity

weighing twenty percent or more above desirable weight for height; In an adult, obesity is defined as a body mass index of 30 or more

Osteoporosis

a condition caused by a calcium deficiency which results in porous, brittle bones and a loss in bone density

RDA

suggested levels of nutrient intake to meet the needs of most healthy people

Saliva

a mucus and enzyme-containing liquid secreted by the mouth that begins to break down starches and makes food easier to swallow

Taste buds

sensory organs located on various parts of the tongue

Trace elements

elements or minerals needed in very small amounts

Vitamins

nutrients that don't provide energy or build body tissue, but help regulate these and other body processes

Water soluble vitamin

a vitamin, specifically vitamin C or one of the B complex vitamins, that dissolves in water; are not stored in the body

Budget

an orderly program for spending, saving, and investing the money you earn to achieve desired goals; also called a financial plan or spending plan

Caterer

someone who owns a business in which food and beverages are prepared for small and large parties, banquets, weddings, and other large gatherings

Conservation

protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm

Consumer advocate

someone who acts or intercedes on the behalf of another who buys goods or services

Dietician

a health care professional who has training in nutrition and diet planning

Entrepreneur

a person who owns and runs his or her own business

FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

an agency in charge of ensuring the safety of all foods sold except meat, poultry, and seafood

Food scientist

experts who work with the sources of nutrients for living things

Multi tasking

fitting tasks together to make the best use of time; doing two tasks at the same time

Nutrition labeling

an analysis of a food product's contributions to an average diet that appears on the product packaging

Open dating

a system of putting dates on perishable and semi-perishable foods to help consumers obtain products that are fresh and wholesome

Precycling

thinking about how packaging materials can be reused or recycled before buying a product

Pre preparation

any step done in advance to save time when getting a meal ready

Semi prepared foods

a convenience food that still requires some preparation before being served

USDA (US Department of Agriculture)

an agency that monitors the safety and quality of poultry, eggs, and meat products

Work simplification

doing a job in the easiest, simplest, and quickest way possible

Conservation

protecting the environment and natural resources against waste and harm

Contaminant

an undesirable substance that unintentionally gets into food

Convenience foods

food products that have had some amount of service added to it

Food additive

a substance added to food products that causes desired changes in the products

Hydroponics

using nutrient-enriched water to grow plants without soil

Pesticides

chemicals used to kill pests during plant growth; can cause food contamination

Shelf life

the amount of time a food product can be safely stored before deteriorating

Technology

the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes such as reaching goals, meeting needs, and solving problems

Work center

section in a kitchen that has been designed around a specific activity

Work triangle

imaginary triangle formed by the refrigerator, stove and sink; are the focal points of the major work centers in a kitchen

Combination oven

an oven that can do two types of cooking, such as conventional and convection

Convection cooking

method of cooking in which foods are baked or roasted in a stream of heated air

Convection oven

an oven that uses a fan to circulate hot air over food

Energy guide

a yellow tag that is displayed on an all newly purchased major appliances which shows an estimated, yearly energy usage for the product

Hot spots

areas of food that during cooking reach a higher temperature than surrounding areas due to receiving a greater concentration of energy

Service contract

repair and maintenance insurance purchased to cover a product for a specific length of time

Standing time

the time during which foods finish cooking by internal heat after being removed from the cooking appliance

Warranty

a written promise by a manufacturer that a product will meet specified standards of performance

Microwave oven

a cooking device which uses invisible waves of energy that cause water molecules to rub against each other and produce heat which cooks the foods

Wave patterns

the repeated cycle in which energy in a microwave oven is emitted by the magnetron tube

Combination oven

an oven that can do two types of cooking, such as conventional and convection

Bacteria

single celled microorganisms that live in soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals

Canning

the process of preserving food by heating and sealing it in airtight containers for storage

Cross contamination

the transfer of harmful bacteria from one food to another food

Food borne Illness

a disease transmitted by food

Heimlich maneuver

procedure that removes food or other obstacles from a choking person's airway

Irradiation

a commercial food preservation method that exposes food to gamma rays to increase shelf life and kill harmful microorganisms

Safety

the condition of being secure from threat of danger, harm or loss

Sanitation

maintaining a clean condition in order to promote hygiene and prevent disease

Temperature danger zone

zone from 41F° to 135F° in which foods should not be stored or kept for long periods of time due to risk of spoilage and bacteria growth

A la carte

food offered with a separate price for each food item on the menu

A la mode

topped with ice cream

Appetizer

light food or beverage that begins a meal and is designed to stimulate the appetite

Au jus

serving food with the pan drippings from which the fat has been skimmed

Beverageware

glasses of many shapes and sizes used for a variety of purposes

Blue plate service

a type of meal service in which the plates are filled in the kitchen, carried to the dining room, and served

Buffet service

style of meal service in which a large table or buffet holds a variety of food items, the serving dishes and utensils, dinnerware, flatware, and napkins and from which guests serve themselves

Compromise service

a combination of English and formal service.; The main course of the meal is served at the table by the host and the remainder of the meal is served in individual portions from the kitchen.

Cover

the arrangement of the tableware that each diner will need for a meal; also called a place setting

Dinnerware

plates, cups, saucers, and bowls

Dutch treat

an arrangement of paying in which each person pays his own way

English service

a style of meal service in which the plates are served by the host and/or hostess and passed around the table until each guest has been served

Entrée

the main course of a meal

Etiquette

manners established by society

Family service

a service style that allows diners to join others in a setting where large dishes of food are placed on a table for self-service

Formal service

when you are served with porcelain or fine china

Gratuity

money charged or left as a tip for service

Hollowware

tableware, such as bowls, tureens, and pitchers, used to serve food and liquids

Open stock

tableware that can be purchased as individual pieces

Reservation

an arrangement with a restaurant to hold a table, or with a hotel to hold a room, for a guest on a given date at a given time

Stemware

glassware with three distinct parts a bowl, a stem, and a base

Table appointments

all the items needed at the table to serve and eat a meal

Table linens

tablecloths, placemats and napkins

Bake

cook in the oven in dry heat without a cover

Barbecue

to cook by broiling, grilling, roasting, or baking; traditionally to cook meat on a rack or spit over hot coals

Baste

to spoon pan liquids over the surface of food during cooking to keep the food moist and add flavor

Batter

a flour and liquid mixture with a consistency ranging from a thin liquid to a stiff liquid depending on the proportion of dry to liquid ingredients

Beat

mix or stir quickly, bringing the contents of bowl to the top and down again

Blend

to mix ingredients until thoroughly combined

Braise

a long, slow combination cooking technique in which food is seared and then simmered in enough liquid to cover no more than 2/3 of the food

Bread

to coat a food item with crumbs and egg

Broil

a dry cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a primary heat source

Brown

to turn the surface of a food brown by quickly cooking it in hot fat or placing it under a broiler

Candy

to cook in sugar syrup until coated or crystallized

Caramelization

the chemical browning reaction that can occur when a sugar is heated; characteristic color and flavor develops

Coat

to thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or a dry mixture

Core

to remove the center part or stem of a fruit or vegetable leaving a hole

Cream

to blend until smooth and fluffy

Cut in

to combine solid fat with dry ingredients until lumps of the desired size remain; may be done using a pastry blender, two knives, or a fork

Deep fry

to cook in a large amount of hot fat

Dice

to cut into very small cubes even size

Dredge

to coat a food by sprinkling it with or dipping it in a dry ingredient such as flour or breadcrumbs

Dress

to trim and clean, commonly associated with poultry and fish

Equivalent

the same amount expressed in different ways by using different units of measure

Flake

to break fish into small pieces with a fork

Flour

to sprinkle or coat with flour

Fold

to add ingredients carefully as not to lose air bubbles; the utensil is passed down through the mixture, across the bottom, and up the opposite side of the bowl, gently turning the mixture over

Fry

to cook in hot fat

Garnish

decorative, edible items added to enhance the appearance of the main food item

Glaze

to coat a food item with a liquid, usually a syrup, to produce a shiny covering

Grate

to shred food into coarse pieces by rubbing it on the teeth of a utensil or rough surface

Grease

to coat food or utensils with a layer of oil or shortening

Grilling

a method of short order cooking on a griddle

Julienne

to cut into long narrow strips

Knead

a mixing process in which dough is folded, pressed, and squeezed to strengthen the gluten strands and allow yeast dough to develop the proper texture

Marinate

to soak foods in a liquid to improve texture or flavor. The liquid generally contains herbs, spices, and other flavoring ingredients, as well as oil, and an acid, such as wine, vinegar, or lemon juice to break down the connective tissue of meat

Mince

to cut into very fine pieces

Mold

to shape by hand or by pouring into a form to achieve a desired structure

Pan broil

to cook without fat in an uncovered skillet without grease and pouring off excess fat as it accumulates

Parboil

to boil briefly as a preliminary or incomplete cooking procedure

Pare

to remove the stem and outer covering of a vegetable or fruit with a paring knife or peeler

Pit

to remove the seed of a fruit or vegetable

Poach

to cook in a small amount of simmering liquid

Preheat

to heat the oven to the correct temperature before adding the food

Puree

to put food through a fine sieve or a food mill to form a thick and smooth liquid

Quarter

to cut into four equal parts

Recipe

detailed instructions for preparing particular foods

Reconstitute

to return to a previous state by adding water, also called rehydration

Reduce

to decrease the quantity of a liquid and intensify the flavor by boiling

Roast

to cook uncovered in the oven with dry heat

Roll

to shape into a round mass, to flatten dough to an even thickness with a rolling pin

Saute´

to cook food in a small amount of fat, stirring or flipping it frequently

Scald

to heat a liquid to just below the boiling point; to dip food into boiling water or pour boiling water over the food

Scallop

to cover with a sauce and bake

Score

to make small, shallow cuts on the surface of a food

Season

to add herbs, spices or other ingredients to a food to increase flavor

Sift

to put a 54. dry ingredient through a sieve or sifter to remove lumps

Simmer

a moist cooking technique in which food is cooked slowly and steadily in a liquid just below the boiling point ( 185 degrees 200 degrees F)

Skim

to remove a substance from the surface of a liquid

Sliver

to cut into long slender pieces

Steam

to cook with vapor produced by a boiling liquid without allowing it to come into contact with the water

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