Lab III- Reproductive Physiology

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meiosis

a specialized type of nuclear division which occurs in the ovaries and testes during gametogenesis. in order to produce gametes with the reduced chromosomal number

haploid complement

the gametes produced in the gonads that have only half the normal chromosome number than seen in all other body cells

gametogenesis

the process of gamete formation which involves the reduction of the chromosome number by half

homologous chromosomes

egg and sperm chromosomes that carry genes for the same traits

zygote

a fertilized egg which is the resuly of a sperm and egg fusing

mitosis

nuclear division

spermatogenesis

sperm production that begins at puberty and continues without interruption throughout life. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes.

spermatogonia

the primitive male stem cells found at the tubule periphery. before puberty all of these are mitotic divisions that produce more of itself.

primary spermatocyte

the product of a mitotic division of a spermatogonium under the influence of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) after puberty. this cell is destined to undergo meisosis. it under goes a growth phase and then meiosis I takes place (DNA replicates before the division)

secondary spermatocyte

the result of meiosis I of the primary spermatocyte is this haploid which is smaller in size. two are made out of one primary spermatocyte, they are destined to undergo meiosis II (DNA is not replicated before division)

spermatids

haploid cells that are the actual product of meiosis, and they are not functional gametes. they are nonmotil;e cells and have too much excess baggage to function well in a reproductive capacity.

spermiogenesis

the process that follows meiosis, and strips away the excess cytoplasm from the spermatid and converts it to a sperm

sperm

motile and streamlined product of spermiogenesis

interstitial cells

aka Leydig cells, cells lying external to and between the seminiferous tubules. LH and ICSH (interstitial-cell stimulating hormone) promotes these cells to produce testosterone and acts synergistically with FSh to stimulate sperm production

head

the genetic region of the sperm, it contains the DNA of the chromosomes. essentially it is the nucleus of the spermatid

midpiece

the metabolic region of the sperm. there is a centriole which gives rise to the filaments that structure the sperm tail. wrapped tightly around the centriole are mitochondria that provide the ATp needed for contractile activity of the tail.

tail

the locomotive region of the sperm. it consists of a typical flagellum produced by a centriole

acrosome

located anterior to the nucleus, this contains enzymes which contains enzymes involved in sperm penetration of the egg

follicle

a saclike structure that immature ovums develops within

follicle cells

one layer of smaller cells which encases follicles

granulosa cells

more than one layer of cells encase the follicle

oogenesis

the process of female gamete formation which occurs in the ovary

oogonia

the primitive stem cells that begin oogenesis. during fetal development, these undergo mitosis thousands of times until their number reaches two million or more

primordial follicles

oogonia become encapsulated by a single layer of squamouslike follicle cells

primary oocytes

when the female is born, her oogonia have increased in size and are known as... The number of these are determined by the time you are born, and they remain quiescent until puberty. Becaue of FSH one or more of the follicles begin to undergo maturation every 28 days.

primary follicle

the name of the grown follicle...its epithelium changes from squamous to cuboidal. It begins to produce estrogens, and the primary oocyte completes its first maturation division, which results in two haploid daughter cells that are disproportionate in size.

secondary oocyte

one of the haploid daughter cells formed by the primary oocyte's first maturation division. it contains nearly all of the cytoplasm of the primary oocyte. as the follicle for this continues to enlarge, blood levels of estrogens rise.

first polar body

one of the two haploid daughter cells that results from the primary oocyte's first maturation division. it is tiny in comparison to the secondary oocyte. It often produces two more polar bodies but they eventually disintegrate for lack of sustaining cytoplasm

graafian follicle

the stage of the follicle in the middle of the 28 day cycle. by this point rising estrogen levels become highly stimulatory and a sudden burstlike release of LH triggers ovulation. this causes the secondary oocyte to be extruded and journey down the uterine tube to the uterus. if pemetrated en route by a sperm, the secondary oocyte will undergo meiosis II, producing one large ovum and a tiny second polar body. if sperm penetration does not occur, the secondary oocyte simply disintegrates.

ovum

the result of the sperm and egg. when the second matyration division is complete, the chromosomes of the egg and sperm combine to form the diploid nucleus of the fertilized egg

corpus luteum

the ruptured follicle is transformed when the secondary oocyte is expelled from the ovary and LH transforms the follicle into this.... It begins producing progesterone and eestrogen. It appears as a solid glandular structure that contains a scalloped lumen that develops from the ruptured follicle.

corpus albicans

the scar tissue that replaces the corpus luteum. it is caused by the drop of LH levels in the blood at the end of the 28 day-cycle. as soon as progesterone production ends, the corpus luteum begins to degenerate and is replaced by this.

germinal epithelium

the outermost layer of the ovary

primary follicle

one or a few layers of cuboidal follicle cells surrounding the larger central developing ovum

secondary follicle

several layers of follicle (granulosa) cells surrounding the central developing ovum. beginning to show evidence of fluid accumulation and antrum formation. follicle development may take more than one cycle

antrum

central cavity

graafian follicle

at this stage of development, the follicle has a large antrum containing fluid produced by the grranulosa cells. The developing secondary oocyte is pushed to one side of the follicle and is surrounded by the corona radiata

corona radiata

A capsule of several layers of granulosa cells that surrounds the developing secondary oocyte. this remains intact for when the secondary oocyte enters the uterine tubes

thecafolliculi

the connective tissue stroma adjacent to the mature follicle which forms a capsule that encloses the follicle.

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