According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?
The amount of vitamin D recommended in pregnancy can be obtained by consumption of fortified milk and
exposure to the sun.
As a means to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborn infants, grain products are fortified with what nutrient?
At what stage of pregnancy does an embryo show a beating heart and a complete central nervous system?
The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the
maternal fat stores
During development of the fetus, what organ(s) is/are the first to develop?
Central nervous system and brain
During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption?
Calcium and iron
A feature of heavy caffeine use in human pregnancy is that it may
increase the risk of infant death.
For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward?
In general, what are the chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother?
Reduced quantity of milk
In obese pregnant women, the risk for neural tube defects in the infant is believed to result from
poor glycemic control
In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of
excessive fluid retention.
The number of extra kcalories per day needed to produce a normal supply of milk during the first six months of lactation is approximately
Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy, often because of low body stores?
A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy?
The process by which maternal nutrient intake affects the child's development of diseases later in life is known as
Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval between pregnancies?
1 -2 years
Studies report that folate supplements for women may lower the incidence of neural tube defects of infants when the vitamin is taken during the
month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy.
What is the name given to the human organism two to eight weeks after fertilization and the stage at which the digestive system is formed?
What is the name of the condition characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine of a pregnant woman?
What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?
What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for an underweight woman?
What is the risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome for a woman who is 40 years old compared with a 20 year old?
100 times higher
What is the term given to the developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth?
What organ of the pregnant woman is central to the exchange of nutrients for waste products with the fetus?
What term best describes a factor that causes abnormal fetal development and birth defects?
What term is given to the time period during which irreversible damage to the fetus may occur from specific events such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins?
Which of the following describes the capacity of a man to produce sperm and a woman to periodically produce a normal egg?
Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol intake and lactation?
Alcohol easily enters breast milk
Which of the following is a characteristic of foodborne illness during pregnancy?
The risk for listeriosis is substantially higher in pregnant women than in other healthy adults
Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes?
It leads to adult-onset diabetes in about a third of the women
Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal nutrition and the development of abnormal metabolism?
Nutrition during pregnancy is the chief determinant of pancreatic beta cell growth and the risk for type 2 diabetes of the offspring
Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal smoking and breast milk production?
The milk produced by mothers who smoke contains nicotine
Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy or lactation?
It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation
Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?
Intestinal absorption increases substantially
Which of the following is a feature of heavy metal intake and pregnancy?
The adverse effects of lead can be reduced by liberal intakes of calcium
Which of the following is a feature of lactation?
Breast milk quantity but not quality is most affected by nutritional inadequacies
Which of the following is a feature of the WIC program?
It saves an estimated $3 in medical costs in the first two months after birth for every dollar spent
Which of the following is a function of prolactin?
It acts on mammary glands to promote milk production
Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?
Eat many small meals
Which of the following is the standard classification for a very-low-birthweight infant?
3 ½ lbs or less
Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells?
Folate and vitamin B12
Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been found to be associated with a lower incidence of neural tube defects?
Which of the following recommendations for pregnant women and alcohol intake has been issued by the U.S. Surgeon General?
They should drink absolutely no alcohol
Which of the following statements describes a relationship between alcohol intake and fetal development?
Birth defects are most severe when the woman drinks around the time of conception
Which of the following statements reflects current knowledge of food choices in pregnancy?
Cravings and aversions to certain foods are probably the result of altered taste and smell sensitivities induced by hormones
Why might a lactating woman need to take an iron supplement?
To replace the iron stores she lost during pregnancy