Chapter 15

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According to many experts, what minimum level of alcohol intake increases the risk of giving birth to an infant with fetal alcohol syndrome?

1 drink/day

All of the following are features of preeclampsia except

diabetes.

The amount of vitamin D recommended in pregnancy can be obtained by consumption of fortified milk and

exposure to the sun.

Approximately what percentage of newly pregnant women develop gestational diabetes?

4

As a means to reduce the risk of neural tube defects in newborn infants, grain products are fortified with what nutrient?

Folate

At what stage of pregnancy does an embryo show a beating heart and a complete central nervous system?

8 weeks

The component of weight gain during pregnancy that is similar to the average weight of the infant at birth is the

maternal fat stores

A craving for non-food substances is known as

pica.

During development of the fetus, what organ(s) is/are the first to develop?

Central nervous system and brain

During pregnancy, which of the following nutrients show a dramatic increase in absorption?

Calcium and iron

A feature of heavy caffeine use in human pregnancy is that it may

increase the risk of infant death.

For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward?

1 lb

Gestation is generally divided into equal periods of

3 months, called trimesters.

How many weeks is the usual duration of a full-term pregnancy?

38-42

In general, what are the chief consequences of nutritional deprivation in the lactating mother?

Reduced quantity of milk

In obese pregnant women, the risk for neural tube defects in the infant is believed to result from

poor glycemic control

In pregnancy, a large weight gain over a short time is usually an indication of

excessive fluid retention.

In what period of pregnancy would most damage from alcohol consumption occur?

First trimester

An infant born with incomplete closure of the spinal cord has

spina bifida.

It is still acceptable for a mother to breastfeed even if she has

an ordinary cold.

The most common forms of neural tube defects are spina bifida and

anencephaly.

The neural tube forms the early parts of the

brain and spinal cord.

A newborn infant at full gestational age has an average length of

20 inches.

A newly fertilized egg is known as a(n)

zygote.

The number of extra kcalories per day needed to produce a normal supply of milk during the first six months of lactation is approximately

500

Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy, often because of low body stores?

Iron

A positive relationship exists between sudden infant death syndrome and which of the following behaviors during pregnancy?

Cigarette smoking

Preeclampsia typically develops during the

second half of pregnancy.

The process by which maternal nutrient intake affects the child's development of diseases later in life is known as

fetal programming.

Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval between pregnancies?

1 -2 years

Studies report that folate supplements for women may lower the incidence of neural tube defects of infants when the vitamin is taken during the

month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy.

Tobacco use in pregnancy increases the risk for all of the following except

macrosomia.

Usually, what is the first sign of preeclampsia?

A large weight gain over a short time

What causes the "let-down reflex"?

Oxytocin

What is gestational diabetes?

Abnormal blood glucose maintenance during pregnancy

What is macrosomia?

A high-birthweight infant

What is the benefit of postpartum amenorrhea?

It conserves iron in the mother

What is the minimum recommended weight gain for the obese pregnant woman?

11 lbs

What is the most likely reason for a pregnant woman to crave pickles?

A change in hormones

What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status?

Infant's birthweight

What is the name given to the human organism two to eight weeks after fertilization and the stage at which the digestive system is formed?

Embryo

What is the name of the condition characterized by high blood pressure, edema, and protein in the urine of a pregnant woman?

Preeclampsia

What is the placenta?

An organ from which the infant receives nourishment

What is the recommended minimum weight gain, in lbs, of a woman who will bear twins?

37

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for a normal-weight woman?

25-35

What is the recommended range of weight gain, in lbs, during pregnancy for an underweight woman?

28-40

What is the risk of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome for a woman who is 40 years old compared with a 20 year old?

100 times higher

What is the term given to the developing infant from the eighth week after conception until birth?

Fetus

What is WIC?

A food and nutrition services program for pregnant women, children, and infants

What organ functions to prepare the mother's breasts for lactation?

placenta

What organ is most affected in anencephaly?

Brain

What organ of the pregnant woman is central to the exchange of nutrients for waste products with the fetus?

Placenta

What term best describes a factor that causes abnormal fetal development and birth defects?

Teratogenic

What term is given to the time period during which irreversible damage to the fetus may occur from specific events such as malnutrition or exposure to toxins?

Critical period

Which of the following describes the capacity of a man to produce sperm and a woman to periodically produce a normal egg?

Fertility

Which of the following increases the risk of macrosomia?

Prepregnancy obesity

Which of the following is a characteristic of alcohol intake and lactation?

Alcohol easily enters breast milk

Which of the following is a characteristic of foodborne illness during pregnancy?

The risk for listeriosis is substantially higher in pregnant women than in other healthy adults

Which of the following is a characteristic of gestational diabetes?

It leads to adult-onset diabetes in about a third of the women

Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal nutrition and the development of abnormal metabolism?

Nutrition during pregnancy is the chief determinant of pancreatic beta cell growth and the risk for type 2 diabetes of the offspring

Which of the following is a characteristic of maternal smoking and breast milk production?

The milk produced by mothers who smoke contains nicotine

Which of the following is a characteristic of vegetarian diets during pregnancy or lactation?

It is possible that a vegetarian diet can support a healthy pregnancy and normal lactation

Which of the following is a distinguishing characteristic of eclampsia?

Convulsions by the mother

Which of the following is a feature of calcium nutrition in pregnancy?

Intestinal absorption increases substantially

Which of the following is a feature of heavy metal intake and pregnancy?

The adverse effects of lead can be reduced by liberal intakes of calcium

Which of the following is a feature of lactation?

Breast milk quantity but not quality is most affected by nutritional inadequacies

Which of the following is a feature of the WIC program?

It saves an estimated $3 in medical costs in the first two months after birth for every dollar spent

Which of the following is a function of prolactin?

It acts on mammary glands to promote milk production

Which of the following is one of the recommendations to treat pregnancy-associated heartburn?

Eat many small meals

Which of the following is the standard classification for a low-birthweight infant?

5 lbs or less

Which of the following is the standard classification for a very-low-birthweight infant?

3 ½ lbs or less

Which of the following nutrients are required in higher amounts during pregnancy due to their roles in the synthesis of red blood cells?

Folate and vitamin B12

Which of the following nutrients taken as a prenatal supplement has been found to be associated with a lower incidence of neural tube defects?

Folate

Which of the following recommendations for pregnant women and alcohol intake has been issued by the U.S. Surgeon General?

They should drink absolutely no alcohol

Which of the following statements describes a relationship between alcohol intake and fetal development?

Birth defects are most severe when the woman drinks around the time of conception

Which of the following statements reflects current knowledge of food choices in pregnancy?

Cravings and aversions to certain foods are probably the result of altered taste and smell sensitivities induced by hormones

Why might a lactating woman need to take an iron supplement?

To replace the iron stores she lost during pregnancy

With few exceptions, all of the following substances or practices should be totally eliminated during pregnancy except

artificial sweeteners.

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