which justice perspective holds that the proper role of the justice system is to prevent crime through the judicious use of criminal sanctions, and demands an efficient system that hands out tough sanctions to those who violate the law
the term criminal justice system was first used after the findings of ____ to reflect a view that justice agencies could be connected in an intricate yet often unobserved network of decision-making processes
American Bar Foundation Project
Which of the following crimes would be placed in the top layer (layer 1) of the criminal justice wedding cake?
A noted celebrity is arrested for shooting her bodyguard
Which of the following is false regarding Herbert Packers notion of the criminal justice process as an assembly-line?
Most people who commit crime are punished
It was in 1919 with the creation of the Chicago Crime Commission, that the work of the criminal justice system began to be recognized.
If one of your fellow students suggested that crime is a recent social problem, you would respond by saying
Crime and violence have been common since the nation was first formed and are not recent social problems.
Offenders at level___ of the wedding cake model of criminal justice have typically committed a serious offense and will receive a prison term, however will not garner much media attention
Between 1976 and 1999, 566 were educated in the US and 82 individuals awaiting execution were exonerated. This is a ratio of 1 individual freed for every 7 individual executed. Such serious errors in the criminal justice system are of concern to advocated of the perspective
African Americans make up about 12 percent of the general population, yet account for approximately __ percent of violent crime arrests
Which of the following crimes is NOT included in the Uniform Crime Report's list of Part 1 or Index Crimes
Which of the following is FALSE about the validity of self- report data?
Serious chronic offenders usually cooperate
Which of the following variables is NOT positively coorelated with a higher rate of crime in a population?
A greater proportion of people in prison
The UCR indicated that police clear slightly more than __ percent of all reported part 1 crimes each year
Which of the following is considered the most widely cited source of criminal statistics
Uniform Crime Report
One of the most important sources of self-report data is the __ study, conducted anually using approximately 2,500 high school seniors
Monitoring the future
A subculture occurs in disorganized neighborhoods marked by apathy, cynicism, helplessness, and distrust which is passed from one generation to the next creating a permanent underclass. This subculture is called:
the culture of poverty
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of specific deterrence?
The crime rate has dropped dramatically during the past decade while the prison population has grown, indicating at least some relationship between crime rated and incarceration rates
Which of the following was NOT one of the models of adaptation that Robert Merton produced as part of his explanation of how anomie can lead to crime?
According to lifestyle theories, who is LEAST likely to be a victim of crime?
someone who is married and stays home at night
Which theory is interested in the question of the link between the media and violence?
Which of the following is NOT one of the three factors linked to predatory crime rates in routine activities theory?
extent of relative social deprivation
The use of illegal means to achieve success in the absence of legitimate means is an example of __ in Merton's theory of anomie.
__ theory believes that law violators may have suffered damage to their personalities early in their development that renders them powerless to control their impulses.
According to Sampson and Laub, what are the two most critical turning points in a criminal career?
marriage and employment
Insanity, intoxication, and age are examples of:
legal defenses used to negate the required proof of mens rea
Which of the following is the difference between criminal and tort laws?
The entity that receives monetary compensation
Floridas stand your ground law authorizes citizens to use __ when they reasonably believe that their homes or vehicles have been illegally invaded.
Under its reformulated priorities, the FBIs primary objective is to protect the:
US against terrorist attacks
How did police reformer August Vollmer contribute to the police professionalism?
Instituting university training for young officers
The end of the Vietnam War significantly reduced tension between students and police, as well as between minorities and the police.
The __ was created in 1326 under the watch system of policing to assist the shire reeve in controlling the country?
Justice of the Peace
Which of the following police operations best exemplifies community oriented policing
the hiring of bilingual officers to patrol ethnic neighborhoods
Which of the following is NOT a program or policy to try to improve patrol effectiveness.
decrease the number of arrests
Community-oriented policing links police effectiveness to:
productive interaction with the community being served
Displacement is when criminals move from an area targeted for increased police presence to another that is less well protected by police
The goal of the Kansas City Patrol Study was to evaluate:
The effectiveness of different patrol models
Conducting an interview with a family member of the victim who was present at the crime scene would fall into the __ investigative stage.
The promotion system currently used in police department often discourages the:
Transferring of experienced officers to other departments
What US Supreme Court decision set forth the "reasonable officer" standard for police use of deadly force.
Graham v. Connor
Which of the following factors is most likely to foster individual discretion on the part of officers within a department?
Large department size
Which is NOT one of the six core beliefs at the heart of the police culture?
Patrol work gives officers the chance to be heroes in the eyes of the public
An officer who approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, checks everyones ID, and arrests everyone who is underage would typify which style of policing?
What US Supreme court case deemed the use of deadly force against an unarmed and nondangerous fleeing felon an illegal seizure under the 4th amendment?
Tennessee v. Garner
Which of the following is FALSE regarding suspect behavior and characteristics
Suspects who offer verbal disrespect are as likely as suspects who physically resist to be met with police physical force
Which police style is associated with the preference to ignore issues of concern or treat them informally, unless the social or political order is being jeopardized?
Which of the following is TRUE regarding police use of force?
All of the statements are true regarding police use of force
The overload hypothesis suggests that community crime rates may shape officer discretion. This is an example of a(n)__ factor
___ would exceed the legal bounds of a warantless search incident to lawful arrest
Search of the room in which the subject was seized
The two components of the stop-and-risk are respectively justified by:
The need for crime prevention and detection, and the need to protect the officer
Which of the following recordings would be allowed in a federal court law in made without a warrent?
A wiretap in which one party consented, but the other was unaware of the tap
If police executing a search warrant find contraband or other criminal evidence not specified in the original search warrant out in the open:
They may lawfully seize the items under the plain sight exception
The exclusionary rule has also been extended to include derivate, or secondary evidence, also called:`
Fruit of the poisonous tree
When the Supreme Court hears cases pertaining to search and seizures, they draw mainly on the __ amendment.
Under the Katz doctrine, in which of the following locations may a conversation be taped without a warrant?
When a right is granted in a case by the Supreme Court it is usually referred to as a(n):
Which of the following technologies has been used for judicial conferences and scheduling meetings?
Closed Circuit Court
Federal appellate judges are required to travel because there are only 13 US court of appeals in the US
Generally, state appellate decisions are based on court transcript, however in some instances the felony court will grant a new trial, which is referred to as:
The trial de novo process
Deciding to deal with the accused without going through the full criminal process is known as:
The view that prosecuting minor crimes would represent a waste of time is an example of a ___ factor that influences prosecutorial discretion.
Which of the following systems would most likely be used in rural areas due to their typically small caseloads?
Research points to the conclusion that prosecutorial discretion is used to"
screen out the weakest cases
Which of the following is not a landmark case dealing with defendants' right to counsel?
Terry v. Ohio
Which statement best describes the state of public defense services prior to the Supreme Court ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright?
Public defense servies were provided mainly by local private attorenys appointed and paid for by the court or by the court or by limited public defendant programs.
Richmond Newspapers Inc. v. Virginia established that criminal trials must remain open to:
The state can never order a defendant to take medication when he/she is ruled incompetent to stand trial.
When a defendant enters a guilty plea, he/she must admit to all the elements of the crime in question.
Using mandatory life sentences so criminals cannot hurt other citizens is the core goal of:
Which of the following punishment models relies on the prediction of future behavior?
Incapacitation, rehabilitation and specific detterence all rely on the prediction of future behavior.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding sentencing?
Older people are punished more harshly than younger people
Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of sentencing guidelines?
to increase judicial discretion
Some of the institutions used as penitentiaries developed soon after the Revolutionary War are still in use today.
Which state declared a moratorium on capital punishment in 2003 and commuted the death sentences of 163 men and four women ?
Who has the final say in the duration of the offenders prison stay in determinate sentencing?
Which goal of sentencing involves an attempt to convince the criminal through punishment that future crime would not be in their own best interests
Sentencing guidelines compute sentencing scores based on the factors of offense seriousness and:
offenders prior criminal record
Which of the following is the most punitive alternative of the punishment ladder?
residential community center
Evaluation of risk assessment instruments demonstrate that they can be highly valid and effective when used properly.
What happens when probation is revoked?
the probation contract is terminated and the original sentence is imposed.
What did the courts rule in Tate v Short?
Incriminating a person who is financially unable to pay a fine discriminates against the poor
During intake an officer may be looking to settle the cause without the necessity of a court hearing.
Which of the following was NOT a landmark supreme court case that dealt with the legal rights of probation?
United States v. Weeks
The American Civil Liberties Union is fighting against internet monitoring of offenders because it invades their right to privacy.
Many scholars argue that probation will continue to be the sentence of choice in both felony and misdemeanor cases because it:
holds the promise of great financial savings
What do judges generally rely on when determining financial penalties and fines?
the seriousness of the offense
Which of the following factors contributes to a decrease in prison populations?
Successful community release programs
During a period when the crime rate had been in decline (1995-2008), the incarceration rate has...
Increase 30 percent
Le Stinche prison was unique in its time for its replacement or corporal punishment with:
The prisoners rights movement between 1960-1980 became an impetus for change in the nations correction system.
Which of the following was forbidden by the end of the 17th century in Pennsylvania Criminal Code?
Men are approx. __ times more likely than women to be incarcerated at least once in their lifetime.
Which of the following is NOT a criticism of private prisons?
they cost more than state run-facilities
Where were the english forced to house large numbers of prisoners in the late 18th century?
on prison hulks and barges
About 2/3 of all jail inmates report having a mental health problem, including more than 15% who display psychotic symptoms
Which of the following is NOT a common difference between females and male prisons?
Females tend to have a higher rate of substance abuse in prison than men
A correctional policy that allows inmates to leave the prison for vocational or educational training, for employment, or to maintain family ties, is called a:
Which of the following does NOT account for the limited rehabilitative treatment available in prison?
the philosophy of greater eligibility
What percentage of state correctional system has some job-related service available for inmates. whether is be inside the institution, prerelease, post release?
What was the most widely used device to bring prisoners complaints before state and federal courts in the late 1960s?
The federal civil rights act, 42 USC 1983
The "hands off" doctrine refers to :
the passive federal court approach to inmate complaints prior to the 1960s
Although rape is under-reported, roughly __ percent of prison unmates claim to have been raped during their prison stay.
Which of the following is NOT a hallmark of the therapeutic community approach?
the use of a token economy system to encourage change in the inmates behavior
The desire for supportive and stable relationships that are otherwise unobtainable in the prisons environment often leads female inmates to:
Create make-believe families
Before the 1960s, it was the norm for convicted criminals to forfeit all rights and be declared civilly dead in the eyes of the state.
What was the predominant societal view of female inmates at the turn of the 20th century?
depraved people who flaunted conventional rules of female behavior
Which decision ruled that inmates can practice their own religion unless their practices clearly undermine prisons security and safety?
Cutter v. Williamson/ Wilkinson
Research had found significant differences in the behavior and use of aggressive tactics between male and female correctional officers.
A millimeter wave imaging system can look through clothing to detect weapons, cell phones, and nonmetallic, objects in correctional facility.
What did the ruling of Farmer v. Brennan decision establish?
Inmates may sue if they are injured by another inmate and correctional authorities failed to protect them from harm that was forseeable.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding reentry?
Prisoners have no greater physical or mental health problems than the general population
"Admitting to the facts of the petition" or " agreeing to the finding" replaces what tern in the juvenile justice system?
The child- savers movement was made up of middle-class civic leaders who sought to institutionalize poor children.
Under what system does the prosecutor have the discretion of filing charges for certain legislatively designated offenses in either juvenile or criminal court?
direct file waiver
Which court case established that prosecution in adult court following an adjudicatory hearing in juvenile court violated the double jeopardy clause of the 5th amendment
Breed v Jones
Approx. __ percent of all cases petitioned to juvenile court get some form of residential treatment
Police have no more discretion in the investigatory and arrest stages of the juvenile process than they do when dealing with adult offenders.
Which type of case is most likely to be referred to the juvenile court by police?
A case involving violence
What was the burden of proof for verdicts handed down by the juvenile court?
Preponderance of the evidence
Which of the following is FALSE regarding waivers from juvenile to adult court?
studies show that juveniles transferred to adult court procedure lower violent crime rates
What form of release is most often used in lieu of money bail for juveniles?
Release to parental custody
Destroying the drug trade undermines the economies of the third world nations as it is an important source of foreign revenue, making this an obstacle to eradicating transnational gangs.
Politically motivated attacks designed to compromise the electronic infrastructure of the enemy and to disrupt its economy are referred to as :
A Ponzi scheme is an investment fraud that involves the payment of purported returns to existing investors from frauds contributed by new investors.
__ is one type of malicious software program that disrupts or destroys existing programs and networks.
Law enforcement struggles when trying to balance the need to control obscenity with the __ amendment
According to the US criminal code, a first time illegal copyright offender will be fined 250,000. A second time offender will receive a term of five years of incarceration.
The detection and enforcement of large scale corporate crime is primarily in the hands of:
Administrative department and agencies
___ involves hacking secure computer networks at the enemy's most sensitive military bases, defense contractors, and aerospace companies in order to steal important data or to access their defenses
Which of the following is FALSE regarding transnational crime networks?
There are equally distributed across the globe
Which of the following is false regarding the Russian transnational crime groups?
Russian transnational crime groups are organized democratically with open membership
When a victim is induced to invest in a financial instrument, allegedly issued by a well-known institution, which offers risk-free opportunities for high rates of return, it is referred to as a:
Prime Bank Scheme
The impact of illegal immigration in the future will be unpredictable according to future trends
__ terrorists use violence to frighten those in power and their supporters in order to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views
Countries known for engaging in ___ terrorism include Brazil, Columbia, Guatemala, Honduras, Peru, Iran, and the Sudan
Which of the following is NOT one of the three controversial provisions that were extended by Obama in the US patriot act.
Which of the following is FALSE regarding terrorism prosecutions in federal courts?
The number of federal prosecutions for terrorism in the last few years has declined
Every day, 30,000 trucks, 6,500 rail cars, and 140 ships deliver more than 50,000 cargo containers into the US, and approx___ percent get screened by the US Law Enforcement.
The television show Whale Wars which follows the Sea Shephards as they seek to protect the whale from being hunted illegally by the Japanese in international waters, documents what type of terrorism?
If terrorists fail to maintain the tools to compete in a post-technological society and feel that a suicide mission would clense themfrom the corruption of the modern world. this would be characteristic of the ___ view
In what year did congress pass legislation authorizing the creation of the department of homeland security
Attacking the ideological underpinning of global jihadism had been one suggested way to defeat jihadist groups
Which of the following is TRUE regarding the department of homeland security
is it responsible for securing our nations borders and transportation systems
The view that terrorists suffer psychological abnormality is well accepted by those advocating the alienation view
Lack of economic opportunity and recessionary economies are positively correlated with terrorism
When a terrorist group is involved in a common law such as drug dealing or kidnapping that is referred to as ___ terrorism.