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The Congo Free State

- King Leopold of Belgium started a campaign for the control of the Congo
- with Britain, offered to drive slave trade out and said Britain would be a "most favored nation," providing trade and economic benefits
- promised Bismarck of Germany he wouldn't give any one nation most favored status, and that Germany would be welcome
- At Berlin Conference, International Congo Association became the Congo Free State and specified that it should have no connection with other countries, including Belgium; however, it was set under the personal control of King Leopold II (1885)
- Split between Portugal, France and Leopold II (largest)
- Leopold implemented his own government of Belgians and moved the capital to Boma
- Leopold pledged to suppress the slave trade, promote humanitarian policies, guarantee free trade, impose no import duties for twenty years, and encourage philanthropic and scientific enterprises
- imposed decree that all natives must hand over rubber (bicycle tires) and ivory, as they were both demands on the global market
- used rubber to promote economy, but restrictions on tariffs and imports put the economy under
- in 1896, American Edgar Canisius began working for Belgians in Congo Free State and described atrocities of the rubber industry
- natives exploited to death for retrieving rubber from rain forest; Leopold held their families hostage until they came back with rubber; those who failed, had villages burnt, families killed and hand chopped off
- dangers in rain forest included disease, jaguars and hostile tribesmen
- Belgium annexed the Congo in 1908, following protest around the world from the mass deaths and atrocities (Congo Reform Movement, led by Mark Twain, Booker T. Washington)
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Berlin Conference

- scramble to control Africa between imperialist powers led to Berlin Conference in 1884
- 14 nations, called for by Portugal, organized by Otto von Bismarck of Germany
- any nation that controlled a settlement along the coast was guaranteed rights to the corresponding interior territory
- led to linear dissection of the continent, which ignored 70% of actual territories of Africa's ethnic groups
- caused imperialist excitement rather than reducing bloodshed and ambition
- International Association of the Congo became the Congo Free State

Young Turks

- rebellions in late nineteenth century occurred in the Ottoman Empire
- Sultan Abdul Hamid II tried to unite the empire using Islam, but unintentionally strengthened Turkish nationalism in Istanbul
- Turks were dominant ethnic group in Asia Minor (Turkey)
- Turks built movement on uniqueness of Turkish culture, history and language
- Japanese victory over over Russia in 1905 excited Turks to become "the Japan of the Middle East"
- group called Young Turks in 1908 took control of the weak government in Istanbul
- Young Turks originally formed to modernize Ottoman Empire
- their victory encouraged other Middle Eastern groups to rebel against the Ottoman Empire
- Young Turks, with help of European powers who were interested in the region politically and financially, tried to repress movements in Egypt, Syria and the Balkans modeled after their own success

Sepoys

- Indian troops who served for the East India Company (Britain)
- heard rumors that the cartridges of the new guns they were about to use had been greased with cow and pig fat
- Cows are sacred to Hindus, and pigs are unclean to Muslims
- soldiers believed they were deliberately being made impure by the British in a plot to convert them to Christianity
- this, plus excessive taxations of their people, the soldiers revolted and killed their British officers and took the Indian capital at Delhi
- general population rebelled, believing it to be justified
- Rani (queen) led a military campaign against East India Company when they tried to take her lands
- called Indian Uprising of 1857, which ended when British forces from other regions assisted
- Following, Britain declared it would govern instead of the Company, and Queen Victoria was declared empress of India
- constructed India as a single colony formed from independent kingdoms, but unity was weak

Liliuokalani

- last monarch of Hawaii
- before her rule began in 1891, the Bayonet Constitution of 1887 was set in place, which she set out to reform
- American and European businessmen saw this as a threat to their sugar plantations and other agricultural enterprises and organized to end her rule
- formed a Committee of Safety with support of United States to overthrow the monarch
- imprisoned her under house arrest in 1893 and forced her to resign in a document that gave no indication of trickery or violence behind their actions
- arrested in 1895 when weapons were found at her home and she was thought to plan an uprising
- Hawaii annexed in 1898

Pofiro Diaz

- dictator of Mexico in 1910, when reformers led by wealthy landowner Francisco Madero tried to overthrown him
- saw himself as a modernizer as he built railroads and increased the yield of copper, lead and zinc in mines, but only helped rich
- impoverished village people by encouraging concentration of farms with few owners
- 1% of the population held 85% of the land in 1900, with wealthy owning much
- government gave much land to US for cattle and mining
- peasant armies arose to work for land reform, both social and political, headed by Zapata, Pancho Villa and others
- Villa fought against US citizens who were taking land and resources
- Zapata and other leaders assassinated, Diaz removed in 1911
- Mexican government declared in 1917 a land reform Constitution
- Zapata and other rebellious warriors would inspire Mexican writers and artists, such as Diego Rivera who depicts the Mexican Revolution

Bolsheviks

- faction of the Russian Socialist Party that advocated control of revolutionary activity by a disciplined group of the party elite instead of by the working class as a whole
- challenged the Provisional Government by boycotting World War I and call for nationalization of private lands
- November 1917, they seized power and in January 1918, elections failed to give Bolsheviks majority so they took control by force
- observed Marxist doctrine, abolished private property which nationalized factories to increase production
- asked Germany for peace and agreed to Treaty of Brest-Litovsk which placed regions of Russia under German control
- relocated capital to Moscow
- renamed "Communist" by Lenin following the Russian Revolution to separate selves from socialists
- civil war erupted as pro-Bolsheviks known as "Reds" faced the "Whites"
- US, Britain, France and Japan landed troops in Russia to stop Bolsheviks, but failed because they fought individually rather than united
- unified leadership reshaped Marxism by building a strong army and ending democracy
- Cheka (secret police) set up detention camps and executed opposing political figures
- organized revolutionary Marxism worldwide by founding Comintern, an international organization to spread communism
- Russia became the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

Fourteen Points

- a proposal by US president Woodrow Wilson for peace during WWI based on "settlement" rather than "victory" and on the self-determination of peoples
- at Paris Peace Conference (1919-1920) following Germany's surrender, US, France and Britain dominated proceedings
- called for open diplomacy, an "open-minded" settlement of colonial issues, and the self-determination of all peoples
- disagreements over the punishment of the Central Powers ranged
- Allies produced the Peace of Paris, which was made up of many individual treaties
- the settlement with Germany, the Treaty of Versailles, had France recover territory and Germany was required to pay a significant amount for repairs (which would destroy the German economy), and directed it to give up its colonies, reduce army, stop manufacturing weapons and give France and Belgium coal each year

Mandate System

- a system of regional order over former Ottoman lands awarded by the League of Nations' charter to the victors of WWI
- providing governance by "advanced nations" (US, Britain, France) over territories not yet able to sustain themselves
- those who were mandated were furious, as nationalism, pride and freedom were being destroyed
- Faisal, son of Ali, spurred an uprising, telling natives "to be slaves or masters of your own destiny"
- rebellions against France and Britain erupted in the Middle East, but were unsuccessful
- caused more uprisings in Africa, against the idea of colonialism

Kristallnacht

- translated to be "Night of Broken Glass"
- November 9-10, 1938, Nazis attacked synagogues, smashed windows of Jewish-owned stores, and forced over 20,000 Jews into prison camps
- night caused by a Jewish teenager who killed a German official after his parents were harassed
- before, Jews were being forced into slave labor, evicted from homes, and prevented from buying most clothing and food
- this was due to Hitler declaring Jews to be "vermin, parasites and Bolsheviks," whom the Germans had to eliminate; he declared Jews an inferior race, dangerous and responsible for Germany's defeat in WWI and the economic crisis that followed
- by 1939, more than half of Germany's Jews had emigrated

Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere

- a region of Asian states to be dominated by Japan, and in theory, to benefit from Japan's superior civilization
- even after the "Rape of Nanjing," many powers in the West believed Japan would rule China better
- Japan wished for a "New Order" in Asia, in which Japan would help free Asians and the world from the oppressive white race
- made enormous demands on resources while treating Chinese and Korean with brutality
- coincide with the German idea of a pure race, as Japan and Germany joined powers to become The Axis

Satyagraha

- truth and firmness
- Mohandas Gandhi's strategy called civil disobedience, which was deliberately but peacefully breaking the law to protest oppression
- combined teachings of Jesus, Buddha and other spiritual leaders
- he rejected that his tactics were passive
- movement of pacifism over military power in order to progress

Warsaw Pact

- a Cold War alliance formed in 1955 among the Soviet Union and its eastern European satellite states
- formed in opposition to the US, western European allies and Canada treaty during the Cold War and Space Race, following the US admitting Western Germany to the NATO in 1955
- split the world into opposing sides
- the two powers formed the military muscle for Cold War politics

Partition of India

- the division of the Indian subcontinent into different states in 1947 and the violence accompanying it
- Britain was going to grant India independence but delayed after the outbreak of war
- powerful Indian politicians bought out British entrepreneurs to fund the war and were now one of the largest creditors to England, forcing Britain to grant independence
- did it along religious boundaries instead of secular ones, creating an independent India for Hindus, and Pakistan for Muslims
- hundreds of thousands were massacred in the resulting re-locations and uprisings, and Pakistani and Indian soldiers fought for control of Kashmir, the border of the two countries
- the religious minority, the Sihks, were outraged at being bypassed then in 1948 a Hindu extremist assassinated Gandhi who had championed religious reconciliation

Mau Mau Uprising

- WWII displaced many Africans from their land causing them to move to slums in cities like Lagos or Nairobi
- high taxes and increased global awareness increased anti-colonial feelings, spurring nationalist led peaceful and violent movements against their colonizers
- in British East Africa the whites lived in splendor
- displaced people, veterans, and others formed secret political parties and in the 1950's violence broke out as these groups moved against Britain rule to recover land
- the rebels were mostly from the Kikuyu group and called themselves "the Land and Freedom Army," but were called the Mau Mau by the British
- Britain responded by rounding up 100,000's of rebels and taking them to concentration camps that were so horrendous the British still denies them

Great Leap Forward

- Chinese communist program in the mid 1950s designed to push them ahead of the world industrially
- Mao Zedong instituted it to fix his war torn country while staying in power
- peasants were to stop farming and make steel with their own shovels, pots and pans in their backyard furnaces
- the decentralized design failed and the DIY steel was bad
- famine followed killing about 30 million people as production of agriculture had halted

Franz Fanon

- black psychiatrist from Martinique who wrote that the mind of the colonized person had been traumatized by the brutal imposition of an alien culture
- colonized person ruled by guns, knew only violence and would thus decolonize by violence
- wrote Black Skin, White Masks (1952) which posed the question of how to decolonize one's mind
- influential thinker during anti-imperial liberation of the 1950's
- justified the use of violence against colonizers, as brute force was all they understood
- become renowned in the 1960's as a Civil Rights Movement example

Green Revolution

- application of DNA and other scientific knowledge to the production of seeds and fertilizers to raise agricultural productivity in developing parts of the world
- allowed for larger yields and more productivity
- rural poverty declined

Augusto Pinochet

- after partipcipating in the coup that assassinated Salvador Allende, Pinochet ended the tradition of political participation, closing down the elected Congress and suspending the Constitution of Chile
- worked to stabilize the economy and at the same time kidnapped and killed those who opposed his ideas
- desired a dictatorship, but Mothers for Life, an opposition group, sent letters to foreign embassies and the press
- by 1988, a coalition of Chilean people took Pinochet out of office, while bringing in a representative government and pressing international tribunals for crimes against humanity

Park Chung Hee

- overthrew new democratic government of South Korea in May, 1961 and instituted a dictatorship
- the US supported as a "Korean style democracy"
- Park opted to give Koreans economic growth using torture and imprisonment of critics
- student protests common and protests continued despite beatings
- workers denounced General Motors and other foreign corporations
- poor working conditions, such as fifteen hour days with one day break once a month, working in unheated textile factories
- in 1979, Park ordered more retaliation against the protesters, to which the head of the Korean CIA shot Park
- military junta took over until 1987, when a president was elected who implemented democracy

Iranian Revolution

- religiously inspired protests by students, clerics, shopkeepers, and unemployed men in 1978 and 1979 brought to power the Islamic leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
- directed against Pahlavi, who was supported by the US to protect oil interests
- Khomeini spread his message through audiocassettes, calling for transformation of the country into a Islamic Republic
- required women to cover their bodies almost totally, restricted their access to divorce, and eliminated many other rights
- revolutionaries believed these restrictions would restore pride and Islamic identity that imperialism had stripped from men
- Khomeini won support of Shi'ite Muslims who were the majority
- 1979, supporters of Khomeini seized hostages at the America Embassy in Tehran, holding them until Reagan's inauguration in January of 1981
- demonstrated decline of US as a superpower following Vietnam

Perestroika

- a policy introduced by Mikhail Gorbachev to restructure the Soviet economy through improved productivity, increased capital investment and the introduction of market mechanisms
- aimed to reinvigorate Soviet economy by encouraging technology
- alongside it, glasnost (openness) called for Soviet free speech

Neoliberalism

- a theory first promoted by British prime minister Margaret Thatcher, calling for a return to nineteenth-century liberal principles, including the reduction of welfare-state programs and tax cuts for the wealthy to promote economic growth
- Reagan followed Thatcher's idea, introducing "Reganomics," a program of income tax cuts for the wealthy combined with massive reductions in federal spending for student loans, school lunch programs and mass transit
- Reagan warned of Communist threat and demanded huge military spending to fight

OPEC

- a group of oil-producing countries in the Middle East established to control the production and distribution of oil
- occurred because Israel attacked Arab nations of Syria, Egypt and Jordan and was victorious
- upsetting the Arab nations, they came together and attacked Israel on Yom Kippur, their most holy day, but were unsuccessful when the US interfered on behalf of Israel
- after failing militarily, the Arab nations attacked economically by cutting off all exports to the US and quadrupling the price of its oil imposed as an embargo
- unemployment increased in Europe and the US and inflation increased around the world

Guomindang

- the Chinese nationalist party founded by Sun Yatsen, a medical doctor, that overthrew the Qing Dynasty and fought to rule mainland China from 1911 to 1949
- declared China a republic and used Western ideas
- Yatsen's slogan was "nationalism, democracy and socialism," but he discerned these in the context of Chinese values
- called for revival of Chinese belief in correct behavior between governors and the people, economic and social reform in line with scientific theories, and the end of foreign domination
- Yatsen resigned as he was not capable of administrating, and handed reins over to Yuan, a former Qing general
- in 1916, Yuan broke with the Nationalists to declare a new dynasty, which was shut down by the generals; small armies were formed and chaos ensued

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