tearing, ripping and grinding
What are incisors, canines and molars for, respectively?
Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch into sugar
Gland that delivers saliva via Stenson's duct
a salivary gland inside the lower jaw on either side that produces most of the nocturnal saliva
a small salivary gland that produces mucin (the viscous component of saliva)
a secretion of the lingual glands; enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of fats
Back of the mouth: bitter, back-sides: sour, middle-sides: salty, tip: sweet and fatty, middle: umami (meaty)
Describe the different areas of the tongue on which different tastes manifest
Secreted by tongue to act with salivary lipase to continue lipid digestion in the mouth
Bolus of food
Food mixed with saliva and lingual lipase
a flap of cartilage that moves up to cover the trachea to protect against choking
a muscular tube that connects the mouth to the stomach; food drops down it into the stomach
Wave-like motion that continues through the entire digestive system to move food and feces involuntarily. Process is initiated upon deglutition (swallowing).
Where the esophagus meets the stomach
easy passage of stomach contents into the duodenum.
High acid content releases the pyloric sphincter, allowing for...
Hormone secreted by the duodenum that inhibits secretion of gastric juices and stomach movement; slows down motility and gastric emptying; reallocates resources towards fat consumption
Pyloric sphincter valve
Keeps food in stomach for 2-4 hours
Lining of stomach
What is the pH of HCl in the stomach?
What are stomach ulcers (the wearing away of the mucus lining) caused by?
1) Helicobacter pylori, 2) Stress, 3) Medications (particularly NSAIDs such as Advil, Aleve, Aspirin 4) Alcohol
Pepsin enzyme in stomach is for...
Trypsin enzyme in stomach is for...
Gastric lipase enzyme in stomach is for...
Hernia resulting from the widening of the foramen in the diaphragm where the esophagus passes, allowing small portion of the stomach to protrude into the thoracic cavity. Caused by pregnancy, obesity and heredity
a semiliquid mass of partially digested food that passes from the stomach through the pyloric sphincter into the duodenum
Hormone that stimulates the release of bile from the gall bladder and pancreatic enzymes from the pancreas.
Emulsifier; mechanically breaks down fats for easier digestion and absorption
Where true absorption of nutrients takes place; the first 12 inches of the small intestine in an adult.
Water, sugar, alcohol
What is absorbed in the stomach?
Absorption is achieved by...
Into the bloodstream
Carbs and proteins are absorbed...
Fats are absorbed by...
Ampulla of Vater
Common bile duct enters the duodenum at the...
The presence of gall stones, which are made of cholesterol
Inflammation of the gallbladder without gall stones
Lipase, protease & amylase; introduced via the pancreatic duct
Pancreas produces what enzymes and where are they introduced to the duodenum?
the part of the small intestine between the jejunum and the cecum
chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
Surgical procedure that creates an opening from the ileum through the abdominal wall to function as an anus.
a vestigial process that extends from the lower end of the cecum and that resembles a small pouch
Colon is used to absorb...
First portion of the large intestine
Bend form the ascending colon to the transverse colon
Bend from the transverse colon to the descending colon
The part of the large intestine closest to the rectum and anus
Keeps feces in the rectum for defacation
What do E. Coli bacteria produce within the intestinal tract?
Caused by inhibition of water absorption in the colon. Caused by bacterial infections, stress (which causes increased peristalsis), and lactose intolerance.
Bacteria that produce a toxin that inhibits water absorption by colon cells and actually causes the release of water from the cells. Actual cause of death is dehydration and electrolyte loss. Patients suffer from rice-water stools that have a high protein content
a serious chronic inflammatory disease of the large intestine and rectum characterized by recurrent episodes of abdominal pain and fever and chills and profuse diarrhea; may lead to the need for a colostomy