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chemical reaction

the combination of reactants to form products

electrolysis

a decomposition reaction in which water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen

chemical equation

symbols that describe a chemical reaction and indicate identities and relative amounts of reactants and products

coefficient

numeral used in a chemical equation to indicate relative amounts of reactants and products

combustion

a reaction in which oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of heat and light

synthesis

two or more substances react to form a single product

decomposition

a single compound is broken down to produce two or more simpler substances

single replacement

a reaction in which the atoms of one element replace the atoms of another element in a compound

double replacement

involves a change of ions between two compounds

activity series

arrangement of elements in order of their tendency to react with water and acids

products

resulting substances in a chemical reaction

hydronium ion

a hydrogen ion covalently bonded to a water molecule, written as H30+

hydration

process by which water molecules surround each ion as it moves into solution

dissociation

a process using energy to separate a compound into ions in water

strong electrolyte

a substance that is completely or largely dissociated in an aqueous solution

conductance

measurement of a solution's ability to conduct electrical energy

weak electrolyte

a compound that experiences only a small degree of dissociation in an aqueous solution

electrolyte

any substance that, when it is dissolved in a solution, will conduct an electric current by means of movement of ions

nonelectrolyte

a substance that, when dissolved in a aqueous solution, will not conduct an electric current

colligative property

a physical property that is dependent on the number of particles present rather than on the size, mass, or characteristics of those particles

oxyacid

an acid that contains an oxyanion

acid anhydride

an oxide that reacts with water to form an acid

monoprotic

acids that can supply only one hydrogen ion per molecule, like HCl

arrhenius acid

any compound that contains hydrogen and dissociates in aqueous solution to form H+ ions

base anhydride

an oxide that reacts with water to form a base

binary acid

an acid composed of only two elements, one of which is hydrogen

neutralization

a reaction between an acid and a hydroxide base to produce a salt and water

titration

a procedure in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of a second unknown concentration

acid-base indicator

a substance in solution that changes its color as it reacts with either an acid or a base

end point

point in a titration in which an indicator changes color

salt

an ionic product of an acid base reaction

standard solution

a solution of known concentration

unsaturated

solutions containing less than the standard amount of solute specified by the solubility at a given temperature

molarity

concentration unit expressed as moles of solute per liter of solution

alloy

a solid or liquid mixture of two or more metals

solubility

a maximum amount of a chemical that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature

solvent

material dissolving the solute to make a solution

immiscible

indicates liquids or gases that will not dissolve in each other

solute

material being dissolved in a solution

miscible

indicates liquids or gases that will dissolve in each other

suspension

mixture that appears uniform while being stirred, but separates into different phases when agitation ceases

insoluble

does not dissolve appreciably in a particular solvent

oxidation number

apparent charge assigned to an atom based on the assumption of complete transfer of electrons

lewis structure

diagram showing the arrangement of valence electrons among the atoms of a molecule

single bond

sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms

covalent bond

bond formed when atoms share pairs of electrons

molecule

substance consisting of atoms that are covalently bonded

valence electron

electron present in the outermost energy level of an atom

unshared pair

pair of electrons that is not involved in covalent bonding, but instead belongs exclusively to one atom

double bond

covalent bond formed by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms

triple bond

covalent bond formed by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms

OH-

hydroxide ion

exothermic reaction

reaction that gives off heat

excess reactant

a reactant that will not be used up in a reaction that goes to completion

limiting reactant

reactant that is consumed first in a reaction that goes to completion

stoichiometry

study of quantative relationships between reactants used and products formed by chemical reactions

cation

ion with a positive charge

anion

ion with a negative charge

oxidation number

apparent charge assigned to an atom based on the assumption of complete transfer of electrons

subscript

number at bottom right-hand side of an element; number of formula units in a reaction

reactant

elements being combined in a chemical equation

single replacement

chemical reaction in which one element replaces another element in a compound

synthesis

when 2 elements combine

combustion

exothermic reaction usually involving oxygen

oxyanion

negative ion that contains oxygen

endothermic reaction

reaction that absorbs heat

double replacement

reaction that always requires a molecular compound

energy

always involved in a chemical reaction

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