alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants and some algae.
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
(plural, antheridia) In plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
Embryonic plant tissue in the tips of roots and in the buds of shoots that supplies cells for the plant to grow in length.
(plural, archegonia) In plants, the female gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
A protective cap of gametophyte tissue that wholly or partially covers an immature capsule in many mosses.
(1) A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some prokaryotes, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces. (2) The sporangium of a bryophyte (moss, liverwort, or hornwort).
(1) A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants. (2) The exoskeleton of an arthropod, consisting of layers of protein and chitin that are variously modified for different functions. (3) A tough coat that covers the body of a nematode.
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
(1) The portion of a bryophyte sporophyte that gathers sugars, amino acids, water, and minerals from the parent gametophyte via transfer cells. (2) One of the three main parts of a mollusc; a muscular structure usually used for movement.
(singular, <b>gametangium</b>) Multicular plant structures in which gametes are formed. Female gametangia are called archegonia, and male gametangia are called antheridia.
The mature gamete-producing structure of a gametophyte body of a moss.
In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation.
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds--seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers.
A term referring to a plant species that has two kinds of spores: microspores that develop into male gametophytes and megaspores that develop into female gametophytes.
A term referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte.
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Anthocerophyta.
The main photosynthetic organ of vascular plants.
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Hepatophyta.
An informal name for any member of the phylum Lycophyta, which includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quillworts.
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Bryophyta.
A leaf with a highly branched vascular system, characteristic of the vast majority of vascular plants.
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte.
In lycophytes, a small leaf with a single unbranched vein.
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a male gametophyte.
Extensive deposits of undecayed organic material formed primarily from the wetland moss Sphagnum.
The upper part of the moss capsule (sporangium) often specialized for gradual spore discharge.
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
An alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the midline of a dividing plant cell.
placental transfer cell
A plant cell that enhances the transfer of nutrients from parent to embryo.
A mass of green, branched, one-cell-thick filaments produced by germinating moss spores.
An informal name for any member of the phylum Pterophyta, which includes ferns, horsetails, whisk ferns, and the genus Tmesipteris.
Long tubular single cell or filament of cells that anchors bryophytes to the ground. Rhizoids are not composed of tissues, lack specialized conducting cells, and do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption.
An organ in vascular plants that anchors the plant and enables it to absorb water and nutrients from the soil.
synthesizing complex-Rose-shaped array of proteins that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls of charophyceans and land plants.
An adaptation for terrestrial plants consisting of an embryo packaged along with a store of food within a resistant coat.
seedless vascular plants
The informal collective name for the phyla Lycophyta (club mosses and their relatives) and Pteridophyta (ferns and their relatives).
The elongated stalk of a bryophyte sporophyte, such as in a moss.
(plural, sori) A cluster of sporangia on a fern sporophyll. Sori may be arranged in various patterns, such as parallel lines or dots, that are useful in fern identification.
(plural, sporangia) A capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop.
In the life cycle of a plant or alga undergoing alternation of generations, a meiotically produced haploid cell that divides mitotically, generating a multicellular individual, the gametophyte, without fusing with another cell.
A diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
A leaf specialized for reproduction.
In organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular diploid form that results from a union of gametes and that meiotically produces haploid spores that grow into the gametophyte generation.
A duarable polymer that covers exposed zygotes of charophycean algae and forms walls of plant spores, preventing them from drying out.
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
The technical term for clusters of sporophylls known commonly as cones, found in most gymnosperms and some seedless vascular plants.
A long, tapered water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants.
A plant with vascular tissue. Vascular plants include all living species except mosses, liverworts, and hornworts.
Plant tissue consisting of cells joined into tubes that transport water and nutrients throughout the plant body.
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.