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Review for 100 facts test for Jay Stream Middle School

Capitalism

political ideology in which private businesses own and operate most industries. Competition determines the cost of products as well as workers' salaries

Communism

A political ideology where the government seeks equal distribution of wealth and ends all forms of private property.

United Nations (UN)

An international organization chartered in 1945 to resolve conflicts between nations.

Containment

A part of the United State's foreign policy followed during the Cold War. Its goal was to stop the spread of Soviet Communism.

Warsaw Pact

A military alliance formed by the Soviet Union and it's allies. It was created as a response to the development of NATO.

McCarthyism

A method of making vicious accusations without offering an proof. This was named after a US senator.

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

A military alliance formed in 1949 by the US and 11 other countries to help defend one another in times of attack.

Red Scare

A wave of anit-communist fear that swept the US after WWI and again after WWII.

Brinkmanship

The practice of taking a dispute to the point of conflict in order to get the opposition to surrender to something. For example, Eisenhower threatened the use of the atomic bomb during the Korean War.

Marshall Plan

A US program of giving aid to European countries to help them rebuil their economies after WWII.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

An agency established by Congress in 1958 to conduct space research.

Domino Theory

An expression used by American politicians during the Vietnam conflict. Americans were afraid that all of Asia would become communist if one more country fell to communist rule.

Embargo

This bans trading with another country.

Berlin Wall

This was builit in the capital of Germany to separate the democratic section from the communist section.

Bay of Pigs

A military situation that occurred in Cuba. The US admitted to secretly training exiles to invade Cuba and try to remove Castro from power.

Cuban Missile Crisis

A military situation that almost led to nuclear war when the US discovered Soviet missiles in the Caribbean.

Dwight Eisenhower

This man was President after Truman and during the Korean War. He formulated brinkmanship and sent troops to Arkansas during the Civil Rights Movement.

Lyndon B. Johnson

This man became President immediately after the assassination of JFK. He is responsible for increasing our involvement in Vietnam.

Harry Truman

This man became president shortly before the end of WWII. he created our initial responses to world domination as well as desegregating the military.

John F. Kennedy

This man was president after Eisenhower. He had several confrontations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. he was influenced by MLK Jr. and wrote a Civil Rights Bill.

Fidel Castro

The communist dictator of Cuba. He relied on the power of the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War. He is the reason why the US has an embargo with Cuba.

Richard M. Nixon

He became president after Lyndon Johnson. He re-established our relationshop with China, ended our involvement in Vietnam and resigned after the Watergate scandel.

Checks and Balances

A system used to prevent any one branch of our government from having too much power.

Federalsim

The distribution of a nation's powers between a central authority and the states.

Executive Branch

This branch includes the President and his cabinet. This branch is responsible for enforcing federal laws.

Judicial Branch

This branch includes all fo the national courts and is responsible for interpreting laws, punishing criminals and settling disputes between states.

Impeachment

This is to officially accuse the President of doing something wrong. It does not mean removal from office.

Commander-in-Chief

This is the title for President when he is controlling the armed forces. This title does not give him the power to declare war.

Congress

This group is made up of two houses called the Senate and the House of Representatives.

Legislative Branch

This branch is often referred to as "Congress" They have the authority to propose bills and pass them into law.

2/3 of Congress overrides his veto

If a president vetoes (refuses to sign) a bill, that bill can only become a law if Congress ____________

Congress and the President

Before a bill can become law, it must be signed by the _____________and _______________________

Liberal

This is a person who wants to see many changes in government. Typically a Democrat.

Amendment

This is an official change, correction, or addition to the US Constitution.

Conservative

This is a person who wants to keep things the same in government; he/she is typically against major changes and is typically a Republican.

Bill of Rights

This is the name given to the first 10 amendments.

Military Tribunal

A court of justice that has a panel of military judges rather than federal judges.

Nationalism

The belief that a nation, language or culture is superior to all others.

Joseph Stalin

A dictator of the Soviet Union. He led his country during WWII and after. He is responsible for Cold War tensions with the US.

Persecution

The act of being oppressed due to religious, political or racial reasons.

Benito Mussolini

The founder of Fascism and the dictator of Italy from 1922-1943.

Adolf Hitler

The dictator of Nazi Germany during WWII. He is responsible for the Holocaust.

Black Power

A social and political movement in the 1960's that called for greater African American economic and political power.

Freedom Rides

Bus trips by civil rights workers through several southern states in which protesters challenged illegal bus segregation.

Poll Tax

A special fee a person had to pay before he/she could vote.

Sit-ins

A demonstration in which protesters would gather in a location and refuse to leave.

Civil Disobedience

The refusal to obey a law that a person feels in unjust.

Discrimination

The unfair treatment of one person or group, usually because of prejudice about race, ethnicity, age, religion or gender.

Segregation

To separate people based on skin color.

13th Amendment

The amendment prohibits slavery.

14th Amendment

This amendment allows every citizen the right of due process, or basic fairness of the law.

24th Amendment

This amendment prohibits states and local officials from collecting poll taxes

Supreme Court

This is the highest court in the United States. The judges on this court can serve for as long as they choose.

Plessy V. Ferguson

A Supreme Court case ruled in 1896. It allowed for segregation of races as long as the facilites were equal.

Brown V. Board of Education

A Supreme Court case ruled in 1954. It reversed Plessy V. Ferguson citing that separation is not equal especially in schools.

Miranda V. Arizona

A Supreme Court case ruled in 1966. It decided that a person must be read their constitutional rights at time of arrest.

Roe V. Wade

A Supreme Court case which ruled that all women have the right to privacy.

Malcolm X

This man was an influential person during the Civil Rights Movement. He was known for his leadership in the Black Muslims and promoted social change by any means necessary.

Thurgood Marshall

This man served on the NAACP and represented the Brown family in Brown V. Board of Education. He was also the firt African American Supreme Court Justice.

15th Amendment

This amendment allows everyone the right to vote, regardless of race.

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

A trade agreement between the US, Canada and Mexico in 1993. It is still in place today.

George W. Bush

This President dealt with the worst attack on American soil in 2001 and has led attacks against terror organizations.

Reform

To make better by removing faults and defects

Saddam Hussein

The leader of Iraq until 2003. He was arrested and charged with numerous counts of organized murder in his own country.

George HW Bush

The President after Ronald Reagan. He was involved in the Persian Gulf War, the savings and loan crisis and a recession in the 1990's.

William J. Clinton

The first President to see a consistent rise of terrorism against the US. He was the 1st democratic President to serve two terms since FD Roosevelt.

Bear Market

A term used to describe the stock market. It means the market has declining stock prices.

Terrorism

The use of violent attacks by individuals or small groups to advance political goals.

Taliban

The former ruling government of Afghanistan. It supported and trained terrorist organizations like Al-Qaeda.

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

An alliance formed by oil-producing nations in 1960 to control the production and sale of oil.

European Union

A group of European nations that have united their economies into a single market.

Bull Market

A term used to describe the stock market. It means the market has rising stock prices.

Social Security

This provides retirment money and unemployment insurance to US workers, as well as aid to people with disabilities.

Bi-Partisan

A term used to describe someone who is supported by both democrats and republicans.

Totaliltarianism

A political ideology that allows the govenment to control every aspect of a citizens' lives

Fascism

A political ideology that encourages dictatorial leadership. It stops all opposition and encourages extreme nationalism.

Propaganda

Is a systematic promotion of ideas to further one's own cause or to damage an opposing set of ideas.

Genocide

Is the planned killing towards an entire national or ethnic group.

Atrocity

A very brutal behavior or condition. It is NOT always in the form of Genocide.

Ethnic Cleansing

A violent elimination of an ethnic group by means of genocide or forced expulsion.

Anti-Semitism

A behavior or action that discriminates against Jewish people.

Scapegoat

A person or a group who is blamed for the mistakes or crimes of other people.

Escalation

The term used to describe President Johnson's policy of increasing US involvement in Vietnam.

Vietcong

Was a communist guerrilla force that fought against South Vietnam.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Gave President Johnson the power to send troops to Vietnam without having Congress declare war first.

Draftee

A person who is selected and forced to join the armed forces.

Guerrilla

A member of a defensive force, usually volunteers, who make surprise raids behind enemy lines.

Kent State Demonstrations

A series of protests held at a Ohio University by anit-war activists and students.

Cambodian Bombings

Occurred when President Nixon expanded the Vietnam War into it's neighboring country and attempted to destroy suspected supply lines.

Geneva Accords

A set of agreements that was meant to help Vietnam become an independent country. They were also meant to stop the conflict between Vietnam and France. The US did not sign the accords fearing that it gave too much influence to the Vietnamese Communists.

26th Amendment

Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18.

Watergate

A scandal in which President Nixon authorized a cover-up at the Democratic National Committee Headquarters. This scandal led to Nixon's resignation in 1974.

Warlord

A ruler with military following in an area where the established government is weak.

Iran Hostage Crisis

A situation that lasted 444 days. 53 Americans were held against "

Iran-Contra Affair

A 1986 scandal in which the government secretly sold weapons to Iran using the profits to fund the contras in Nicaragua.

Globalization

To organize or establish something worldwide

Gerald Ford

Became President after Nixon's resignation. He is the ONLY President to never be elected by the people. He is most widely remembered for pardoning Nixon.

Jimmy Carter

Inaugurated in 1977. He was involved with the Middle East Peace Accord, the Iran Hostage Crisis and the Panama Canal Treaty.

Ronald Reagan

Focused on anti-communism. He increased government funding for military defense and led the rise of conservatism.

Mikhail Gorbachev

The Soviet leader responsible for ending Communism in his country and in Eastern Europe.

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