experience of significant maladaptive behavioral and psychological symptoms due to the effect of a substance on the CNS; set of behavioral and psychological changes that occur as a direct result of the physiological effects of a substance on the CNS
experience of clinically significant distress in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning due to the cessation or reduction of substance use; set of physiological and behavioral symptoms that result when people who have been using substances heavily for prolonged periods of time stop using the substances or greatly reduce their use
diagnosis given when recurrent substance use leads to significant harmful consequences
diagnosis given when substance use leads ti physiological dependence or significant impairment or distress; a person is physiologically dependent on a substance when they show either tolerance or withdrawal from the substance
symptoms of substance intoxication
change in perceptions, seeing or hearing things, attention is diminished/easily distracted, impairs judgement and thinking; psychomotor disturbances; inhibitions may be lower, some people may become agressive or hostile
How long do symptoms of intoxication last?
Intoxication begins to decline as the amount of a substance in a persons blood or tissue declines, but the SYMPTOMS may last for hours or days after the substance is no longer detectable in the body.
Symptoms of substance withdrawal
the symptoms of withdrawl from a given substance are typically the opposite of the symptoms of intoxication with the same substance
when do withdrawl symptoms begin?
can begin a few hours after a person stops ingesting substances that break down quickly in the body, such as alcohol or heroin. The more intense symptoms usually end within a few days to a few weks. However, some symtpoms like seizures, may develop several weeks after a person stops taking high doses of substances that take a long time to leave the body completely, like some anti-anxiety meds. Subtle physiological signs of withdrawal, such as problems with attention, perception, or motor skills, may b present for many weeks or months
Four categories of harmful consequences that suggest substance abuse
MUST SHOW REPEATED PROBLEMS IN AT LEAST ONE OF THESE WITHIN A 12 MONTH PERIOD: 1) failure to fulfill important obligations at work, home, or school as a result of use; 2) repeated use of the substance in situations in which it is physically hazardous to do so; 3) repeated legal problems as a result of substance use; 4) continued use of substance despite repeated social or legal problems as result of use
DSM criteria for substance dependence
physiological dependence plus repeated problems due to substance in 3 or more of the following: 1) TOLERANCE; 2) WITHDRAWAL; 3) substance taken in larger amounts or for longer than was intended; 4) desire or unsuccessful attempt to cut down or control usage; 5) great deal of time spent in getting or using substance or recovering from its effects; 6) social, occupational, recreational activities given up or reduced because of substance; 7) use is continued despite knowing there is a problem
need for markedly increased amounts of the substance to achieve intoxication or the desired effect; markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of substance