Decomposers are bacteria that break down the ___________ in dead matter in to simpler substances that are taken up by plant roots.
Stores fat in the bone___________.
yellow bone marrow
Where two or more bones meet___________.
Fluid-filled sac on the outside of a joint ___________.
Potential bone cell found in cartilage of embryo___________.
Soft tissue that fills center cavities of bones___________.
Protein in dead epidermal cells that protects underlying cells___________.
Cell pigment that colors skin and protects it from solar radiation___________.
Band of tissue connecting bone to bone___________.
Smaller unit in muscle fiber___________.
The functional unit of a myofibril___________.
Type of cell used to brake down worn out bone___________.
A skeletal Muscle is___________.
Beneath the scab of a wound,___________ began to multiply to full in the cap.
___________ produces red blood cells, some white blood cells, and fragments involved in blood clotting.
Red Bone Marrow
The mineral___________, is found in dairy products, it is a critical part of the diet for healthy, strong bones.
The contraction of ___________ muscle, the muscle of internal organs , is slow and prolonged.
Bones grow in length at the ___________ of the bone. They grow in Diameter on the ___________ surface of the bone
Muscle strength depends on the ___________ of the fibers and the number that ___________ at one time.
When an inadequate supply of oxygen is available to meet a muscle cells oxygen needs ___________ becomes the primary sources of APT.
When the ___________ plates degenerate, you have stopped growing taller.
Marsupials in continents other than australia lost out in competition with ___________.
Teeth called ___________ are used to puncture and tear the flesh of prey.
___________ are the teeth used for crushing and grinding food.
The most intelligent mammals are ___________.
Cellulose is important in the diet as a sourced of___________.
The body's preferred energy source is ___________.
What is the abundant substance in the body___________?
The Golden age of mammals is the ___________ Era.
Bony fishes belong to the ___________ class.
Scientists hypothesizes the ___________ evolved from tetrapods.
Frogs have a ___________ ___________ that picks up vibrations from water or air and transmits them to the inner ear.
Fishes have great flexibility when they swim because they have ___________ vertebrae.
By means of its lateral line system, a fish can detected ___________ and ___________ in the water.
Movement / Vibrations
Lampreys are parasites that attach themselves to other fishes by sucker like ___________ and they use their ___________ to scrape away the flesh.
A ___________ is any chordate that has a backbone.
Most fish are characterized by their, ___________,___________,and ___________.
Scales/ Paired fins/ Gills
In most fish, the structures that are most important for obtaining oxygen from water are the ___________.
The firs vertebrates to evolve were ___________.
Many salamanders that live on land are missing What Structures? ___________
Blood flows through the body of a fish in a ___________ closed circulatory system.
The swim bladder is the organ that adjusts the ___________ of many bony fish.
A fish's lateral line system would be most likely to help a fish sense aquatic predators that approach it from ___________.
Lampreys are included in modern day ___________ fish.
All fish in the class Chondrichthyes are alike in the composition of their ___________.
What feature distinguishes most fish from most amphibians?
Lobed- finned fish, like the coelacanth probably resembled the first ___________.
At the end of ___________ Period, fossil evidence indicates that most amphibian species became extinct.
The eggs of amphibians can dry out easily because they do not have ___________.
Name 3 ways snakes subdue their pray. 1.___________ 2. ___________ 3.___________
Constriction/ Injecting Venom / grabbing and swallowing whole
Alligators and crocodiles use their ___________ to swim rapidly.
Turtles have a shell to use for ___________.
The pit-like sense organ that picks up airborne chemical in the roof of a snakes mouth is called the ___________.
Rattlesnakes can detect heat by means of ___________, in the head.
heat- sensitive pits
A constrictor snake kills by _________________________________.
constricting its prey
What structures do birds have that they share with no other animal?
Contrast the skin of crocodiles and salamanders.
Crocodiles are dry and scaly , and Salamanders are moist and smooth.
What beak is able to scoop things?
What birds beak is used to drill into trees and get insects ?
What kind of bird would use its beak to tear meat.
an eagles beak
what birds beak is most similar to that of a theropod dinosaur?
One reason for the early success of reptiles was that the reptiles could reproduce ________________________________.
away from water.
List 3 adaptations that enabled reptiles to live out of water. 1___________ 2. ___________ 3.___________
lungs/ having scaly skin/ laying eggs that have protective membranes
Most reptiles exchange gasses through their ___________.
The difference between reptilian eggs and amphibian eggs is that reptilian eggs are surrounded by a ___________ and___________.
Protective shell / membranes
Alligators have a ___________ heart.
Birds' feet are covered with scaly skin. This observation supports the statement that birds are ___________ like animals.
The structure of a bird's ___________ ensures that oxygen rich blood never mixes with oxygen-poor blood.
A cow is a vertebrate that has a heart with ___________ chambers.
A bird of prey will usaly have a ___________-- bill and ___________ talons.
List three characteristics of all birds. 1___________ 2. ___________ 3. ___________
1. an outer covering of feather 2. maintain a constant internal body temperature 3. have two legs
Oxygen-rich and oxygen- poor blood undergo the least mixing in the heart of an (Which order of Reptile?) ___________
In a Reptile's egg, ___________ is performed by the chorion.
Give an example of a Monotreme.
Most marsupials are found in what continent?
The ___________ in the mammalian brain increase the surface area.
A hose's jaw may have small incisors and canines but wide ___________ and ___________.
1 premolars 2. molars
The main advantage of hair is that it conserves ___________.
rodent-like; includes rabbits and hares: ___________
Only mammals that can fly:___________
Includes both aquatic and terrestrial flesh eaters:___________
even-toed ungulates :___________
Acient order; many live underground:___________
Head lacks external ears : ___________
Young my develop in a pouch :___________
Adults are toothless:___________
Young remain in uterus until well developed :___________
Embryos have a tiny yolk sac:___________
Eggs are laid and incubated: ___________
young may be born a short time after fertilization:___________
Umbilical chord presents :___________
A(n) ___________ is the sheet of muscle located beneath the lungs that is used to expand and contract the chest cavity of mammals.
The ___________ passes O₂ or food to, and removes wastes from, the developing embryo.
Female mammals have ___________ that secrete milk, enabling them to nourish the young are mature enough to find food.
The time during young___________ mammals develop inside the uterus is called the ___________.
1 placental 2. gestation period
The uterus is a hollow ___________ organ in female mammals in which the development of offspring takes place.
A gland is a cell or group of cells that secretes fluids needded by mammals for ___________ regulation and other life processes.
Insight learning is also know as ___________ and ___________ learning.
1. trial 2. error
A male sea lion displays ___________ behavior when he patrols the area of beach where his female sea lions rest.
Ivan Pavlov was credited with being the first biologist who demonstrated ___________ in dogs.
Owls sleep during the day and are awake at night because they have no more ___________.
For trial-and-error learning to take place , an animal receives a ___________ for a particular response.
An example of ___________ would be when young ducklings follow their mother.
Give three examples of how animal communication can occur. 1.___________ 2.___________ 3.___________
1. Sounds 2. Smells 3. Touches
A famous pianist can play a melody after only hearing some one hum a few bars. This type of behavior is called ___________.
The ability of salmon to recognize their home stream at spawning time is an example of ___________.
Sleep cycles are called ______________________.
___________ is a behavior that is usually influenced by changing seasons.
Hunting in a pack is a type of social behavior. List two more examples of social behavior that we have studied. 1.___________ 2. ___________
1. Courtship 2. Communication
The resources in a ___________ can include food, nesting sites, and potential mates.
The ___________ of a society exhibit a type of social behavior.
Give a brief description of each term listed. trial and error:______________________
trying one solution and then another
Give a brief description of each term listed. Motivation:______________________
internal need that causes an animal to act
Give a brief description of each term listed. Insight: ______________________
most complex learning
Give a brief description of each term listed. Communication:______________________
exchange of information that causes behavior change
Give a brief description of each term listed. Language:______________________
use of symbols to represent ideas
Give a brief description of each term listed. pheromone:______________________
chemical means of communication
Give a brief description of each term listed. Habituation:______________________
Simplest type of learned behavior which occurs when the same stimulus dose not produce punishment or reward.
The ___________ is the type of muscle which makes up the heart.
An involuntary muscle ___________ under unconscious control.
The smooth muscle is found in ___________ organs.
The first reaction of the body to a cut is to restore these blood vessels ______________________.
continuity of the capillaries.
Third-degree burns involve the death of ___________ and ___________ cell/ layers.
1. epidermal 2. dermal
By age 20, a persons ___________ stop growing because hormones cause the growth centers at the ends of ___________ to degenerate.
1. bones 2. bones
The skin regulates the temperature of the body on a hot day by dilating ___________.
The ___________ is the type of connective tissue that keeps bones from rubbing together.
What is the joint found in the skull region?
Potassium(k) surrounds and protects ___________.
Myofibril is the smaller fiber in a ___________ fiber.
The process of bones maturing is called ___________.
Myosin is the major ___________ making up the thin filaments of ___________.
1. protein 2. sarcomere
What is the type of joint that allows the widest range of movement?
Ball and Socket
___________ or ___________protects the spinal chord.
1. Back bone 2. Vertebrae
The process that uses oxygen to breakdown glucose into ATPs is ___________ respiration.
The smallest filtering unit of the kidney is the ___________.
The type of blood that can be given to anyone is ___________.
Microscopic blood vessels are called ___________.
___________ are produced by the blood to attack antigens.
If your lungs could be laid out to show surface area, it would be the size of a ___________.
Plasma makes up about ___________% of your blood.
Name 3 out of 5 things carried by the plasma. 1. ___________ 2. ___________ 3. ___________
1. Red blood cells 2. white blood cells 3. platelets 4. hormones 5. enzymes
True or false : Your heart can not replace lost cells
Osteocytes lay down layers of ___________ that become hard when calcium and mineral salts are added.
What is the joint found in the ankle region?
Bones are nourished by the ___________ system.
Actin and myosin join to form this type of muscle fiber:
Actin is the major protein making up the thin filaments of ___________.
the neck is a ___________ joint.
In a sacomere, which fibers slide when an electrical impulse stimulates them?
List the 3 parts of the axial skeleton. 1.___________ 2. ___________ 3.___________
1. Skull 2. Ribs 3. backbone
What 3 things are produced in red bone marrow?1.___________ 2. ___________ 3.___________
1. Red blood cells 2. White blood cells 3. Platelets
Lifting heavy weights causes this muscle fiver to get thicker : ___________
The outer covering of the heart with nerves and blood vessels is called the ___________ .
Haversian canals run through ___________ bone to nourish the osteocyte.
The elbow is a ___________ joint.
What is the most abundant substance in the body?
The surface arterioles ___________ in cold weather.
Name two vitamins that can be made in the large intestine. ___________ & ___________
1. K 2. B
When you wave goodbye you use a ___________ joint.
Which type of muscle needs the most mitochondria? ___________ & ___________
1. Cardiac 2. heart
Where dose blood travel from the aorta?___________
When your diaphragm contracts your chest cavity becomes ___________.
What is considered to be "normal" blood pressure? ___________
List 2 things that the kidney dose. 1. ___________ 2. ___________
1. Regulates nitroenous waste 2. Regulates sodium osmotic pressure
The ___________ is the tube leading from the kidney to the bladder.
Where in the heart is the pacemaker found?___________
What two types of blood cells lack a nucleus? 1. ___________ 2. ___________
1. Platelets 2. Red Blood Cells
What 3 systems are involved in breathing? 1. ___________ 2. ___________ 3. ___________
1. Muscular 2. Respiratory 3. nervous
What helps veins get blood back to the heart? ___________
What causes anti bodies to form? ___________
How many bones are in your body? ___________
The largest veins in your body are called? ___________
What is the red iron pigment that allows RBCs to carry O₂
Systolic blood pressure occurs when ___________ contract.
A ___________ is any drug that inhibits transmission of sensory impulses at a synapse.
A stimulant is any drug that speeds up the activities of the ______________________.
Central Nervous System
Which part of the brain controls concious actvities , memory, language, and the senses?
The ___________ is the area of the brain that controls involuntary activities, such as breathing and heart rate.
Cocaine is a stimulant because it causes levels of ___________ in the brain to increase.
A person who is addicted to a drug is experiencing ___________ when he or she becomes ill after stopping its use.
You can see the colors in a picture because you are aided by the ___________ of the retina.
A nerve impulse travels from one cell to another by passing from an ___________ to another dendrite.
Alcohol may act on the CNS by blocking the movement of ___________ and ___________ ions across the cell membrane.
1. Sodium 2. Calcium
Alteration of pain or mood is an activity of drugs in the ___________ system.
Sensory neurons can carry impulses from outside and inside the body to the ___________ and ___________.
1. Brain 2. Spinal chord
Medicine that relives pain and causes sleep ___________.
Any drug that slows down the activities of the Central Nervous System___________.
Psychological and physical dependence on drugs___________.
Automatic response to a stimuli___________.
Single extension of a neuron that carries impulses away from the cell body ___________.
Occurs when a person needs larger and/ or more frequent doses of a drug to achieve the same effect ___________.
Layer of nerve tissue made up of sensory neurons that respond to light___________.
Light receptors adapted for vision in dim light___________.
Structure in the inner ear that helps maintain balance ___________
Controls involuntary activities such as breathing and heart rate ___________.
Tiny space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron over which nerve impulses must travel ___________.
Fluid filled , snail-shaped structure in the inner ear___________.
Drug that affects the Central Nervous System, alerting moods, thoughts, and sensory perceptions ___________.
Chemicals that diffuse across the synapse and simulate polarity changes in a neuron ___________.
The shape of the diaphragm when it is in the exhaling position is a ___________ shape.
Name 3 processes of breathing. 1.___________ 2.___________ 3.___________
1. Warm air 2. Remove Dirt 3. Releases oxygen
Gas exchange in cells is associated with cellular ___________
The process that uses ___________ to break down glucose, producing energy , takes place with cells.
Write a brief statement describing items Trachea-_________________________________
opening from lrynx to bronchi
Write a brief statement describing items alveoli-_________________________________
air sac where oxygen and CO₂ are exchanged
Write a brief statement describing items Hemoglobin-_________________________________
Iron pigment in red blood cells that allows them to carry oxygen and CO²
Write a brief statement describing items Antigen-_________________________________
Any foreign substance that causes antibodies to form
Write a brief statement describing items Artery-_________________________________
thick walled vessels that carry blood away from the heart
Write a brief statement describing items Atrium-_________________________________
top chamber of the heart
Write a brief statement describing items Urine-_________________________________
waste product produced by kidneys
Write a brief statement describing items Nephron-_________________________________
the smallest filtering unit of the kidney
What order of mammals is capable of cognitive learning?___________
What special adaptation do birds have in their lungs?
in 2010, what is the leading cause of death in the U.S?
What is the living bone cell called that is produced by an osteoblast?
The bone "recycling" cells which break down old and worn out bones are called ___________.
The formation of new bone cells by osteoblasts is called ___________.
Marsupials originated in ___________ America.
The nourishment of the young inside the ___________ occurs through the placenta.
Mammal's reproductive cycle is __1_________ fertilization as opposed to amphibians ______2_____ fertilization.
1. Internal 2. External
The largest fish is the ___________.
All bats have ___________.
The ___________. of the paleozoic era is called the period of fish.
The longest snakes in the world are the ___________.
The ___________ is the largest organ in the body.
the ___________ has the third eye for sensing light.
The universal blood donor is ___________.
The universal receptor is ___________.
The large intestine can make both vitiman ___1__ & vitiman ____2___.
1. K 2. B
The pigment that gives blood the color red is ___________.
Marsupials originated in ___________.
Some ___________ have poison glands behind the head.
The ___________ in birds crushes food.
The oldest known bird is the ___________.
The first reaction of the body to a cut is to restore ___________.
Birds do not require ___________.
During digestion proteins are broken down into___________.
The ___________ is part of the digestive tract.
Light first enters the eye through the ___________.
the pathway of oxygen in a bird's lungs is___________,_____________,_________,_____________,_________.
1. trachea 2. posterior 3 air sacs,4 lungs, 5anterior air sacs
___________ is the word that describes the evolutionary history of species.
The mechanical act of taking air into the lungs is ___________.
the kidneys filter ___________ liters of blood each day.
there have been ___________ mass extinctions.
the kidneys excrete ___________ to maintain homeostasis.
A blocked urethra would cause the ___________ to enlarge .
all bacteria have a ___________.
mammals first appeared ___________ million years ago.
Most salamanders do not have ___________.
Bony fishes have a ___________ to adjust buoyancy.
The first amphibians probably resembled modern day ___________.
The ability of salmon to recognize their home stream at spawning time is ___________.
Migration is triggered by ___________ changes.
Polar bears live at the ___________Pole.
___________ can live in fresh and salt water.