Chemistry Chapter 7

38 terms by mmcguinness 

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symbol

shorthand for an atom of an element

formula

shorthand for the molecules or basic units of a compound

equation

shorthand for what happens during a chemical change

subscripts

in a chemical formula tell how many atoms of an element are present in that compund basic unit

coefficients

in a balanced equations tell how many units of each reactant are needed and how mant units of each product are made

coefficients

tell the reacting rate

law of conservation of atoms

the atoms present in the reactants are rearranged to form the products. atoms are not lost or gained during a reaction.

balance

put a coefficient in front of the formula

synthesis decomposition single replacement double replacement combustion

5 types of reactions

synthesis

small to big. A + B = AB

decomposition

big to small. AB = A + B

single replacement

A + BC = AC + B... metals have to be paired with a nonmetal

double replacement

AB + CD = AD + CB. metals have to be paired with a nonmetal

combustion

fuel + water = carbondioxide + water

chemical reactions

change the amount of chemical energy during a chemical reaction

chemical reactions

the bonds if the reactants are broken and the bonds of the products are made

requires, makes

breaking bonds ___ energy. forming new bonds ___ energy.

chemical reaction

during a ___ energy is either released or absoarbed from the surrondings

exothermic

gives off energy

endothermic

takes in energy

chemical energy

energy that is stored in the structure of a chemical bond

chemical energy

chemical reactions change the time of ___

broken

during a chemical reaction bonds are __ and energy is released

exothermic

energy is on the product side

endothermic

energy is on the reactant side

law of conservation

energy is not created or destroyed during chemical changes

rate

is not time

reaction time

is not reaction rate

reaction rates

tell you how fast a reaction is going

reaction rate

is the rate at which the reactants turn into products

temperature surface area stirring increasing and decreasing the concentration of the reactants catalysts

factors affecting reaction rate

temperature

increasing heat causes an increase in the average kinetic energy of the reactants. causing more motion. more motion = more collisions

surface area

amount of surface exposed, availible for reactions

surface area

can be increased by gridding and chopping. the more of this the faster the reaction will happen

stirring

increases the exposed area and rate of the reaction concentration

catalysts

change the way that a reaction happens

catalysts

are not used up in the reaction, usually speed up the reaction

inhibitors

slows down the reaction

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