1. For which of the following reasons are newborns, infants, and the elderly more readily affected by the
heat than other age groups?
a. Faster metabolism
b. Increased body mass
c. Inadequate salt intake
d. Poor ability to regulate body temperature
1. d. Poor ability to regulate body temperature
2. Of the following venomous snakes, which one usually has the highest incidence of a "dry bite"?
a. Coral snake
b. Water moccasin
c. Mississauga rattlesnake
2. a. Coral snake
3. The purpose of a constricting band after a venomous snake bite is to impede the flow of which of the
b. Arterial blood
d. Both A and C
4. The technique for central rewarming requires the application of heat to which of the following areas of
the patient's body?
a. Chest, back, neck, and armpits
b. Lateral chest, neck, armpits, and groin
c. Head, neck, chest, and back
d. Head, neck, chest, and groin
4. b. Lateral chest, neck, armpits, and groin
5. Your patient is a 44-year-old female with a history of alcoholism. She has been walking around at an
outdoor fair on a hot, sunny day. She is disoriented to time; has hot, dry skin; and appears to be
generally weak. Which of the following is the appropriate sequence of treatment for this patient?
a. Have the patient drink an electrolyte solution or sports drink and apply cold packs to her neck, armpits,
b. Get as much ice as possible from the food vendors at the fair, place the patient in a large container of ice,
and apply oxygen by nonrebreather mask.
c. Give oxygen by nonrebreather mask, have the patient sip a sports drink or electrolyte solution, remove
heavy clothing, and place cold packs on her neck, armpits, and groin.
d. Give oxygen by nonrebreather mask, remove heavy clothing, and place cold packs on her neck, armpits,
5. d. Give oxygen by nonrebreather mask, remove heavy clothing, and place cold packs on her neck, armpits, and
6. You have responded to a local pool for a drowning patient. Lifeguards have pulled the patient out of the
pool prior to your arrival. You find the 16-year-old patient unresponsive with agonal respirations and a
weak carotid pulse. What is your first action?
a. Apply high-concentration oxygen by nonrebreather mask.
b. Apply high-concentration oxygen by bag-valve mask.
c. Insert a Combitube.
d. Insert an oropharyngeal airway.
6. d. Insert an oropharyngeal airway.
7. Which of the following is acceptable when actively rewarming a hypothermic patient?
a. Encouraging the patient to exercise
b. Giving coffee or brandy to drink
c. Warming the patient as quickly as possible
d. Applying humidified oxygen
7. d. Applying humidified oxygen
8. You arrive on the scene and find an unresponsive homeless man lying in the alleyway clutching a wine
bottle. He is wearing a long-sleeved shirt, but does not have pants on. His skin feels cold to the touch.
The week's temperatures have not been above 50°F. Which of the following should you do immediately
after ensuring the patient has an adequate airway?
a. Apply the AED.
b. Provide manual stabilization of the cervical spine.
c. Begin passive rewarming.
d. Check the pulse.
8. d. Check the pulse.
9. The term blanching, used to describe localized cold injury, means the tissue has turned to which of the
a. White or lighter
b. Blue or purple
9. a. White or lighter
10. When actively rewarming a frostbitten extremity in warm water, you should change the water when the
temperature falls below ________ °F.
10. b. 100-105
11. Localized cold injury occurs due to vasoconstriction and:
a. chemical imbalance in the tissues.
b. blood clots.
c. ice crystal formation in the tissues.
d. loss of calcium.
11. c. ice crystal formation in the tissues.
12. You arrive on the scene to find a scuba diver on board a boat slumped over in the captain's chair with
frothy blood in his mouth. The captain states that the diver was down no more than 15 feet when he
ascended rapidly and called for help. Which of the following is most likely?
a. Decompression sickness
b. The bends
c. Air embolism
d. Caisson's disease
12. c. Air embolism
13. Applying an external source of heat to the patient's body to rewarm him is called ________ rewarming.
13. b. active
14. You respond to a construction site on a very hot summer day for a person "not acting right." You find a
38-year-old male patient seated in a work vehicle with the air conditioner on maximum. Coworkers
state the patient was working for the last 2 hours pouring concrete when he started "speaking
gibberish" and nearly collapsed. The patient is responsive to verbal stimuli. Your initial vital signs are
blood pressure 90/60, pulse 136, and respiratory rate 24. The patient's skin is cool to the touch and dry
but his shirt is wet with visible salt rings. Which is the best treatment for the patient?
a. Apply high-concentration oxygen and rapidly transport to the nearest medical facility.
b. Have the patient slip water slowly to replace what he has lost.
c. Cool the patient with tepid water.
d. Have the patient drink at least 1 liter of water to replace what he has lost.
14. a. Apply high-concentration oxygen and rapidly transport to the nearest medical facility.
15. You respond to the scene of a local campground. Your patient is a 15-year-old female patient who was
stung in the arm by a bee. The patient is anxious and hyperventilating at 28 times a minute. The patient
is alert and oriented to time, place, person, and event. Lung sounds are clear bilaterally. The left arm is
swollen and the stinger is not present. Blood pressure is 118/72 and pulse is 110. The patient's mother
states she is allergic to bee stings and has an epinephrine auto-injector. She called 911 because she was
afraid the patient would stop breathing. Select the best treatment plan.
a. Place a constricting band around the arm to minimize the spread of the venom.
b. Assist the patient in administering her epinephrine auto-injector.
c. Monitor the patient for shock and transport.
d. Place the patient in the Trendelenburg position.
15. c. Monitor the patient for shock and transport.
16. Which of the following is the process in which heat is lost from the body as wind passes over it?
b. Hydrodynamic cooling
16. a. Convection
17. Reducing the pain of a marine animal sting can be accomplished by rinsing the affected area with which
of the following?
a. Sterile saline solution
b. Gasoline or kerosene
c. Cold water
17. d. Vinegar
18. You have responded to a local pool for a drowning patient. Lifeguards have pulled the patient out of the
pool prior to your arrival. You find a 22-year-old male patient unresponsive with agonal respirations
and a weak carotid pulse. Bystanders state the patient was not using the diving board and was found in
the shallow end. Why are c-spine precautions necessary?
a. The patient may have suffered a spinal injury by jumping in shallow water.
b. The patient may have suffered a cervical spine injury when pulled out of the water.
c. The patient may have been using the diving board after all and injured his cervical spine.
d. The patient may have hit his head on the side wall while swimming laps.
18. a. The patient may have suffered a spinal injury by jumping in shallow water.
19. Which of the following terms describes the temperature of the surrounding air?
a. Wind chill index
b. Shell temperature
c. Core temperature
d. Ambient temperature
19. d. Ambient temperature