White Southerners' derogatory term for fellow whites considered traitors to their region and race for joining the Republican Party and cooperating with Reconstruction policy
Relief agency for the war-ravaged South created by Congress in March 1865. It provided emergency services, built schools, and managed confiscated lands
Constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1869 providing an explicit constitutional guarantee for black suffrage
In the early years of Reconstruction, the majority of teachers who educated Southern freedmen were
white women from the North
Churches became the center of African-American life for all of the following reasons EXCEPT that
they were a place to socialize with whites
One of the immediate goals of African American colleges was
to train teachers in order to encourage literacy among African Americans
In what way did the Mississippi plantations owned by Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his brother Joseph become a model?
Former slaves ran the plantations autonomously
The Redeemers portrayed themselves as
the saviors of the South from the injustices of Republican rule
In 1867, Republicans in Congress passed the Tenure of Office Act in an attempt to
Weaken the powers of the president.
The organization known as the Freedmen's Bureau was established as
an all-purpose relief agency for the South
Why did freedmen assert that they were owed land?
They saw Southern property as the product of both their and their ancestors' unpaid labor
Why was the Fifteenth Amendment not as effective as it could have been in the enfranchisement of African Americans?
The amendment stated that suffrage could not be denied or abridged because of certain conditions, so Southerners found other reasons to deny African Americans the right to vote.
The corruption scandal related to government-subsidized railroads was known as
the Credit Mobilier scandal
To inspire newly freed slaves, a Boston Christian organization published the autobiography of
Why were white Southerners derisive toward scalawags?
They believed scalawags to be traitors to the white race