Clinical Psychologist and counseling psychologist
Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders and everyday behavioral problems. Clinical ephasizies on disorders and Counseling emphasize everyday problems
Physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Spend more time on severe disorders
Are used to relieve nerouvness, are effective in the short term, but have pontential for abuse, dependence, and overdose
Can gradually reduce psychotic symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions but they have many unpleasant side effects. Used mostly for schizophrenia and people with mood disorders
can gradually relieve episodes of depression, but even the newer SSRIs are not free of side effects.
Such as lithium, can help prevent future episodes of both mania and depression in bipolar patients
Social Skills Training
Designed to improve clients interpersonal interactions through modeling,behavior rehearsal and shaping
People are biologicaly prepared by their evoulution to handle certain fears much more easily than others
Refers to largely unconsicous defensive maneuevers intended to hinder the progress of therapy
occurs when clients start relating to their therapist in ways that mimic critical relationships in their lives
Involves distinguishing one illness from another
is a forecast about the probable course of an illness
Refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness
Refers to professional treatment by someone with special training
involve verbal interactions intended to enhance clients self knowledge and thus promote healthful changes in personality and behavior
An insight therapy that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motivates, and defenses through techniques such as free association and transference
Clients spontaneously express their thoughts and feelings exactly as they occur, with as little censorship as possible
Client Centered therapy
an insight therapy that ephazies providing a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determining the pace and direction of their therapy. They try to be like a human mirror
Theupuetic climate conditions (cliend centered therapy)
1. Genuineness (honest Communication) 2. Unconditional positve regard (nojudgemental acceptance of the client) 3. Accurate empathy (understanding of the clients point of view.
Common factors of improvement by experienced clients
1. the developmental of a therapeautic alliance with a professional helper 2. the provision of emotional support and empathic understanding by therapist 3. the cultivation of hope and positive expectations in the client 4. the provision of a rationale for the clients problems and a plausible method for resolving them 5. the oppurtunity to express feelings, confront problems, gain new insights, and learn new patters of behavior
involve the application of the principles of learning and conditioning to direct efforts to change clients maladaptive behaviors
Cognitive behavioral treatments
use combinations of verbal interventions and behavior modification techniques to help cliets chang maladaptive behavior
uses specific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders. Goal is tho chan clients negative though and maladaptive behavior. often give their clients homework assignments that focus on changing behavior
Cognitive therapists say that depression prone people tend
1. blame their setbacks on personal inadequencies without considering circumstantial explanations 2. focus selectively on negative events while ignoring positive events 3. make unduly pessimistic projections about the future 4. draw negative conclusions about their worth as a person based on insignificant events.
Are physiological interventions intended to reduce symtoms associated with psychological disorders
Electoconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
A biomedical treatment in which electic shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions. Effective for major depression. Risks of ECT is that memory losses are common short term side effects.
medical institution specializing in providing inpatient care for psychological disorders
refers to transferring the treatment of mental illness from inpatient instituions to community based facilities that emphaszie outpatient care. This was made by 2 developments 1. the emergence of effective drug therapies for severe disorders 2. deployment of community health centers to coordinate local care
toward the mean occurs when who score extremley high or low on some trait are measure a second time and their new scores fall closer to the mean.