APUSH Final Exam Review

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In colonizing North America, the English monarchs

followed no central plan and granted charters and proprietorships for a variety of reasons.

The flow of immigrants to the English colonies in the seventeenth century

was determined by political upheaval, religious persecution, and economic recession.

By founding a colony in North America, the London Company (later the Virginia Company) initially wanted to

make profits through the discovery of gold and silver.

n the early days of the Virginia colony, the settlers

preferred searching for gold to farming or guarding the settlement.

The solution to the economic problems of Virginia was

he cultivation of tobacco.

The Lords Baltimore viewed their colonizing project as

a haven for English Catholics.

Pilgrims, or Separatists, left the Anglican Church because they

felt that it was still influenced too much by Catholic elements.

The colony of New York

was originally settled by the Dutch and was then taken over by the English.

he economy of Carolina was

at first diverse in agriculture and then became dependent on rice as a staple.

The seventeenth-century English colonies

had few common traits other than their loyalty to the monarch.

In the seventeenth century, the colonists in Massachusetts were more successful than Virginia's

in adopting a concept of corporate or community welfare.

The lives of Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson indicate that

Massachusetts Bay faced difficulties in creating the perfect society in America.

In Massachusetts, the electorate consisted of

all adult male members of a Congregational Church.

William Penn's Frame of Government for his colony

was based on the ideas of James Harrington.

The government of the Carolinas

was conceived by the Earl of Shaftesbury with help from John Locke.

Hunters reached the Great Plains near what is now Calgary, Canada and found

a lush grassland populated by large animals

The "big mammals" of the Western Hemisphere were probably wiped out by

Clovis hunters

All of the following statements about the Archaic peoples are true EXCEPT

hey had diets high in fat and carbohydrates.

The people of Poverty Point

built an enormous and complex system of mound

The most important effect of corn planting on North America was

t allowed the transformation from hunting-gathering to farming societies.

An acre planted in corn provided enough food for approximately

200 people

ornfields in the Southwest stopped producing corn because

salt water diverted to the fields eventually produced toxic soil

When he sailed from Spain in 1492, Columbus intended to find

a new route to the Orient

Wherever Europeans went as explorers and settlers in the fifteenth century, they

mistreated the native people they encountered

Europeans usually viewed Native Americans as

racially and culturally inferior

England was slow to colonize in the New World in the sixteenth century because

it was torn by domestic political and religious differences

Early Jamestown nearly failed as a colony because of all of the following EXCEPT

poor leadership from Captain John Smith

Puritan reformers of the Anglican church hoped to focus the act of worship on

reading the Bible and analyzing the Scriptures

Anne Hutchinson's heresy of antinomianism called into question the

application of the colony's laws to those in possession of saving grace

Invading Europeans found Native American cultures that were remarkably

varied

Richard Hakluyt's "Discourse on Western Planting" was

an essay promoting and justifying English colonization

Eventually, the London Company encouraged immigrants to come to Jamestown by offering them an opportunity to

own their own land

To establish a civil government for themselves, the Separatist Pilgrims at Plymouth Plantation signed the

Mayflower Compact

Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts Bay because he advocated

separation of church and state

The proprietary form of colonization became the usual form of planting English colonies following the

restoration of the English monarchy

Arrange the following in correct time order: (A) the restoration of the English monarchy, (B) the Puritans' Great Migration, (C) the founding of Jamestown, (D) the Protestant Reformation.

D, C, B, A

In which of the following pairs is the geographical subdivision NOT correctly matched with one of its colonies?

Chesapeake--New York

In 1676 frontier settlers rebelled against the royal governor of Virginia. This was

Bacon's Rebellion

For slaveholders, skilled slaves were generally LESS _______ than field hands.

controllable

As compared to the Chesapeake colonies, New England had

a balanced gender ratio

The primary local governing institution of the New England colonies was the

town meeting

The driving force of New England's economy in the early eighteenth century was

the "triangular trade"

he most distinctive feature of the Middle Colonies was

the ethnic and religious diversity in their populations

Most immigrants to England's seventeenth-century mainland American colonies

wanted to improve the condition of their own lives

In contrast to the New England colonies, the Chesapeake colonies had a

scarcity of women

Slavery in England's North American colonies was first used on a large scale

late in the seventeenth century when the demand for labor increased

In the colonial South,

most people were illiterate

n New England families it was usual that

children were held to strict obedience

The Half-Way Covenant was intended to allow the baptism of

the children of those who were not church members

In the 1680s, the English monarchy tried to gain greater control over the New England colonies by appointing Edmund Andros to govern the

Dominion of New England

John Peter Zenger was charged with

seditious libel

Northwest Passage

a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America

Social Reciprocity

society naturally punishes criminals indiscriminantly

who was john smith?

man who takes control of Jamestown "he who will not work will not eat"

The Half-Way Covenant

New Englanders who did not wish to relate their conversion experiences could become half-way saints so that their children would be able to have the opportunity to be saints

Maryland Act of Religious Toleration (1649)

mandated the toleration of all Christian denominations in Maryland, even though Maryland was founded for Catholics (but majority was protestant)

Mercantilism

European government policies of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries designed to promote overseas trade between a country and its colonies and accumulate precious metals by requiring colonies to trade only with their motherland country

Affirmative Action

a policy designed to redress past discrimination against minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities

Bay of Pigs

An unsuccessful invasion of Cuba in 1961, which was sponsored by the United States. Its purpose was to overthrow Cuban dictator Fidel Castro.

Roe vs. Wade

the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.

Operation Desert Storm

Military operations that started on January 16, 1991, with a bombing campaign, followed by a ground invasion of February 23 and 24, 1991. The ground war lasted 100 hours and resulted in a spectacularly one-sided military victory for the Coalition.

North American Free Trade Agreement

NAFTA an alliance that merges canada, mexico and the united states into a single market

Watergate

The events and scandal surrounding a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters in 1972 and the subsequent cover-up of White House involvement, leading to the eventual resignation of President Nixon under the threat of impeachment.

D-Day

June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)

Cesar Chavez

United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)

Marbury vs. Madison

Case in which the supreme court first asserted the power of Judicial review in finding that the congressional statue expanding the Court's original jurisdiction was unconstitutional

Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

Five civilized tribes

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; "civilized" due to their intermarriage with whites, forced out of their homelands by expansion

Barbary Pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Era of Good Feelings

A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.

Nifty Fifties

The Good Times that followed WWII for America.

Gay nineties

name for the decade of the 1890's, an especially excited time in American history

XYZ Affair

incident of the late 1790s in which French secret agents demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute over the Jay Treaty and other issues

Thomas Paine

Revolutionary leader who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense (1776) arguing for American independence from Britain. In England he published The Rights of Man

Suffolk Reserves

Nullified the Coercive Acts, closed royal courts, ordered taxes to be paid to colonial governments instead of the royal government, and prepared local militias

Olive Branch Petition

An offer of peace sent by the Second Continental Congress to King George lll

Midnight Judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Battle of Yorktown

Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.

Valley Forge

The site where George Washington and his troops endured a harsh winter without proper food, shelter, or clothing

Tea Act

tax on tea; made the east india company the only tea company allowed to colonists; reason for Tea Party (1773)

Battle of Saratoga

Turning point of the American Revolution. It was very important because it convinced the French to give the U.S. military support. It lifted American spirits, ended the British threat in New England by taking control of the Hudson River, and, most importantly, showed the French that the Americans had the potential to beat their enemy, Great Britain.

Tallmadge Amendment

This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.

The Glorious Revolution

William and Mary kicked James II outof England (exiled into France), allowed more power to thelegislatures

James Oglethorpe

established colony of Georgia as a place for honest debtors

The Enlightenment

emphasis on human reason, logic, andscience (acquired, not nascent, knowledge); increased followers of Christianity

Benjamin Franklin

connected the colonies to Britain, opposed tounnecessary unfair taxation; strong influence on Albany Plan

The Great Awakening

began by Edwards to return to Puritanism,increased overall religious involvement, gave women more activeroles in religion, more and more ministers sprouted up throughoutthe country; mainly affected towns and cities

Deists

believed that God created the universe to act throughnatural laws; Franklin, Jefferson, Paine

George Whitefield

powerful speaker, toured the country andinspired many into Christianity

Jonathan Edwards

Puritan minister, led revivals, stressedimmediate repentance

New Lights vs. Old Lights

New Lights brought new ideas,rejected by Old Lights; both sought out institutions independentof each other

Albany Plan of Union

colonies proposed colonial confederationunder lighter British rule (crown-appointed president, "GrandCouncil"); never took effect

French and Indian War

French threat at the borders was nolonger present, therefore the colonies didn't need English protection; more independent stand against Britai

Proclamation of 1763

prohibited settlements west of Appalachian, restriction on colonial growth

Salutary Neglect

Parliament took minor actions in the colonies,allowing them to experiment with and become accustomed to self-government, international trade agreements

Townshend Act (1767

similar to Navigatio; raised money to paycolonial officials by American taxes; led to Boston boycott of English luxuries

Virginia Resolves

no taxation without representation,"introduced by Patrick Henry

Declaratory Act

allowed Parliament to completely legislateover the colonies, limited colonists' say

Sons of Liberty

organized and controlled resistance againstParliamentary acts in less violent ways (strength of martyrdom),advocated nonimportation

Suffolk Resolves

organize militia, end trade with Britain,refuse to pay taxes to Britain

Committees of Correspondence

committees appointed fromdifferent colonies to communicate on matters; asserted rights to self-government, cooperation between colonies

Virginia Plan

bicameral congressional representation based on population

New Jersey Plan

equal representation in unicameral congress

Jay's Treaty

provided for evacuation of English troops from posts in the Great Lakes

12th Amendment

added the seperation of the president and vice president onto two different ballots

Barbary Pirates

Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations

Midnight judges

The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.

Missouri Compromise (1820)

Maine as free state, Missouri asslave state, slavery prohibited north of 36°30'

Rush-Bagot Treaty

agreement between US and Britain toremove armed fleets from the Great Lakes

Tariff of Abominations

under JQ Adams, protectionist tariff,South considered it the source of economic problems, madeJackson appear to advocate free trade

What were the five civilized tribes?

Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks,Chickasaws, and Seminoles

Who invented the cooton gin?

Eli Whitney

Specie

paper money; specie circular decreed that thegovernment would not accept specie for government land

Independent Treasury Bill

government would hold itsrevenues rather than deposit them in banks, thus keeping thefunds away from private corporations; "America's SecondDeclaration of Independence"

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

organized Seneca Falls Convention,founded (with Anthony) National Women Suffrage Organization

Dorothea Dix

worked towards asylums for the mentally insane,worked alongside Mann

Transcendentalism

founded by Emerson, strong emphasis onspiritual unity (God, humanity, and nature), literature with strongreferences to nature

Second Great Awakening

religious movements, traveling"meetings," rise of Baptist and Methodist ministries; Charles G.Finney

Horace Mann

worked to reform the American education system,abolitionist, prison/asylum reform with Dorothea Dix

Frederick Douglass

runaway slave, well-known speaker on thecondition of slavery, worked with Garrison and Wendell Phillips,founder of The North Star

Compromise of 1850

1) California admitted as free state, (2)territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico,(3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federalassumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6)new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A.Douglas

Manifest Destiny

stated the United States was destined to spanthe breadth of the entire continent with as much land as possible,advocated by Polk

Harpers Ferry (1859)

Brown aimed to create an armed slaverebellion and establish black free state; Brown executed and became martyr in the North

Kansas-Nebraska Act

territory split into Kansas and Nebraska, popular sovereignty (Kansas slave, Nebraska free); proposed byStephen A. Douglas

Know-Nothing (American) Party

opposed to all immigration,strongly anti-Catholic

Anaconda plan

the Union (Northern) plan devised by General Winfield Scott to blockade the south and restrict its trade to win the war.

20-Negro Law

In 1863 this law was passed that exempted an owner or overseer of twenty or more slaves from service at war

New York City draft riots (1863)

drafting extremely hated by Northerners, sparked by Irish-Americans against the black population, 500 lives lost, many buildings burned

Military Reconstruction Act (1867)

congressional law that imposed military rule on the South and demanded harsh conditions for readmission of the seceded states

Compromise of 1877

Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river

Andrew Carnegie

Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"

John D. Rockefeller

Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.

Vertical Integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution

Horizontal Integration

absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level

Knights of Labor

1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed

National Labor Union

1866 - established by William Sylvis - wanted 8hr work days, banking reform, and an end to conviction labor - attempt to unite all laborers

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions

Social Gospel movement

a movement emphasizing the application of Christian principles to social problems

Chinese Exclusion Act(1882)

Bill passed by Congress in response to labor disputes that prohibited all immigration from China until 1943.

Thomas Edison

invented the electric light, phonograph, mimeograph,Dictaphone, moving pictures

Alexander Graham Bell

United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)

Karl Marx

founder of modern communism

Interstate Commerce Act

Established the ICC (Interstate Commerce Commission) - monitors the business operation of carriers transporting goods and people between states - created to regulate railroad prices

Federal communications Commission

An agency of the federal government with authority to develop regulations for the broadcast media.

Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Association

provided housing and recreation to cityyouth, imposing Protestant morals, unable to reach out to all youth

Jane Addams

helped lead settlement house movement, co-founded NAACP, condemned war and poverty

Hull House

Jane Addams's pioneer settlement house (center for women's activism and social reform) in Chicago

Edward Bellamy

state-run economy to provide conflict-free society

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