Science Ch. 14-16 Unit Test Study Guide

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According to fig. 14-1 wotf statements about the distribution of land and water is true?

The Southern Hemisphere is covered by much more water than the Northern Hemisphere

which ocean in fig. 14-1 is represented by point A?

Atlantic

where trenches dont exist, the steep continental slope merges into a more gradual incline known as the continental _____

rise

isolated volcanic peaks on the ocean floor are called _______

seamounts

wotf is NOT true about deep ocean trenches

they are geologically very stable

which submersible has been used for deep-sea research

Alvin

whats the speed of sound in water

1500 meters per second

wotf can submersibles do

(both) collect data about areas of the ocean that were previously unreachable by humans and remain underwater for long periods of time

wotf currents is associated w/ downslope movements of dense sediment-rich water

turbidity currents

wotf is associated w/ mid-ocean ridges

mountainous topography

important mineral deposits, including large reservoirs of oil and natural gas, are associated w/

continental shelves

wotf occurs @ the continental margin in the pacific ocean? volcanic activity, earthquakes, plate interactions

all of the above

mineral-rich water, heated by newly formed oceanic crust, escapes through cracks in the ocean floor called _____

hydrothermal vents

calcareous ooze is an ex. of _____

biogenous sediment

manganese nodules are an ex. of ______

hydrogenous sediment

wotf is NOT a biogenous sediment

manganese nodules

which type of sediment is made up mainly of the shells of diatoms and radiolarians

siliceous ooze

biogenous sediment is made up of ______

shells and skeletons of marine organisms

the persian gulf, the gulf of mexico, and the north sea are all known for their reserves of what ocean resource

oil

what is one disadvantage of using gas hydrates

they rapidly break down at surface temps and pressures

how much methane may be locked up in sediments containing gas hydrates

20 quadrillion cubic meters

which ocean resources are second in economic value to oil

sand and gravel

which ocean resource is currently NOT economically profitable to mine

manganese nodules

when seawater evaporates, the concentration of salts increases until wotf occurs

the salts precipitate out of solution

what technology do scientists use to measure ocean depth

sonar

what is the most abundant salt in the sea

sodium chloride

1000 grams of seawater would consist of how many grams of dissolved substances

35

what is the principal source of dissolved substances in the oceans

weathering

what is the 2nd major source of elements in seawater

earth's interior

the highest salinity would be found in wotf areas

an area w/ high rates of evaporation

which layer of the ocean experiences a rapid change in density w/ depth

pycnocline

in addition to salinity, what factor affects the density of seawater

temperature

wotf properties most determines water's vertical position in the ocean

density

where would you find the lowest density seawater

surface mixed zone

wotf is NOT a category of marine organisms

aphotic

organisms that drift w/ ocean currents are called _____

plankton

what term describes organisms that live on or near the ocean floor

benthos

marine organisms are classified according to how they

live and move

wotf is a type of nekton

shark

how do plankton differ from nekton

plankton are floaters

wotf best describes the ocean bottom: cold, quiet, dark

all of the above

what is true about the deepest parts of the ocean floor

animals live in constant darkness

how do animals survive in the deeper parts of the seafloor

they feed on each other

the open ocean of any depth is called the _____

pelagic zone

what factors influence a region's photosynthetic productivity

nutrients and sunlight

fig 15-1 shows the productivity of diatoms and zooplankton in polar oceans, according to fig 15-1, when does zooplankton biomass peak compared to the peak of diatom productivity

zooplankton peak later

fig 15-1 shows the productivity of diatoms and zooplankton in polar oceans. According to fig 15-1, when does zooplankton biomass decline in polar oceans

october

the transfer of energy b/t trophic levels avgs about

10%

which term best describes energy transfer b/t trophic levels

inefficient

which animal would have the greatest chance of survival

one fed through a food web and with a wide variety of prey

b/c of the coriolis effect, ocean currents in the northern hemisphere are deflected to the ___

right

which force is involved in the development of surface currents

friction

the gulf stream affecta the climate of ____

great britain

the influence of cold currents is mostly felt in the _____

tropics

the rising of cold water from deeper layers to replace warmer surface water is called ____

upwelling

which process does NOT decrease the salinity of water

formation of sea ice

density currents move _____

vertically

according to the conveyor belt model of ocean circulation, what happens when water reaches the poles

the salinity of the water increases

wotf is visible evidence of energy passing through water

wave

what is fetch

the distance that wind travels across open water

the height, length, and period of a wave does NOT depend on wotf

tidal range

wotf is NOT true about a wave in the open ocean

water particles travel w/ the wave

when is tha daily tidal range greatest

spring tide

which statement best describes the tidal pattern shown in fig 16-1

there is a single high tide and a single low tide each day

whats the name of the tidal pattern shown in fig 16-1

diurnal

the movement of water that parallels the shore within the surf zone is called ____

longshore current

waves in shallow water become bent and negin to run parallel to shore, a process known as ______

refraction

what happens to waves when there is refraction in bays

they expand less energy

an isolated remnant of wave erosion is a _____

sea stack

a sandbar that completely crosses a bay, closing it off from the open ocean, is a _____

baymouth bar

wotf is a landform created by wave erosion

sea arch

a ridge of sand projecting into a bay and often having a hooked end is a _____

spit

what feature connects an island to the mainland or to another island

tombolo

wotf decreases beach erosion w/o the construction of protective structures

beach nourishment

wotf structures is built to protect boats from large breaking waves

breakwater

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