Chapter 4

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All of the following are characteristic of Type 2 diabetes mellitus except
A) arises most commonly in adulthood.
B) caused by insensitivity of fat and muscle cells to insulin.
C) often associated with obesity.
D) the least common form of diabetes.

D - the least common form of diabetes

Amylase is
A) an enzyme that digests protein.
B) a branched chain of glucose units.
C) an enzyme that digests starch.
D) a straight chain of glucose units.

C - an enzyme that digests starch

Amylose is
A) a long, straight glucose chain.
B) branched glucose chains.
C) a long, straight fatty acid chain.
D) branched amino acid chains

A - long straight glucose chain

The blood glucose response of a given food compared to a standard

Glycemic Index

Class of sugars formed by chemically linking two monosaccharides

Disaccharide

Dietary fibers primarily are
A) polysaccharides.
B) polypeptides.
C) disaccharides.
D) monosaccharides.

A - polysaccharides

A disaccharide is formed by the chemical bonding of
A) two monosaccharides.
B) two polysaccharides.
C) one monosaccharide and one polysaccharide.
D) two oligosaccharides.

A - 2 monosaccharides

Fibers that either dissolve or swell in water and are fermented by bacteria in the large intestine

Viscous (soluble) fibers

Fibers that mostly do not dissolve in water and are not fermented by intestinal bacteria

Nonfermentable (insoluble) fibers

For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?
A) Muscles
B) Brain
C) Liver
D) Heart

B - Brain

A form of diabetes in which ketosis is not commonly seen

Type 2

A form of diabetes prone to ketosis

Type 1

Glucose also is known as
A) levulose.
B) ribose.
C) maltose.
D) dextrose.

D - dextrose

Glucose is absorbed via ______ absorption.
A) passive
B) facilitated
C) active
D) participatory

C - active

The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of
A) carbohydrate consumed.
B) glucose absorbed.
C) insulin released from the pancreas.
D) glycogen stored.

A - carbohydrate consumed

High blood glucose; above 125 mg/100 ml blood

Hyperglycemia

How many grams of carbohydrate, per day, must humans consume to avoid ketosis?
A) 75
B) 100
C) 130
D) 250

C - 130

John Fibernugget wants to increase his fiber intake. Which of the following would be the safest way for him do this?
A) Eating enriched grains such as Rice Krispies and Saltines
B) Increasing his meat intake
C) Reading the labels of grain products and buying those labeled "wheat flour"
D) Eating more fruits and vegetables and not removing the edible peels

D - eating more fruits and vegetables and not removing the edible peels

Known as complex carbohydrates

Polysaccharide

Lactose intolerance is caused by
A) a milk allergy.
B) lactase deficiency.
C) milk bacteria.
D) intestinal bacteria.

B - lactase deficiency

Low blood glucose that follows a day or so of fasting

Fasting hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose that follows a meal high in simple sugars

Reactive hypoglycemia

Low blood glucose; below 40-50 mg/100 ml blood

Hypoglycemia

The main function of glucose is to
A) serve as raw material to build tissue.
B) work with enzymes to carry out chemical reactions.
C) repair tissue.
D) supply energy.

D - supply energy

Major fructose sources include
A) milk and cheese.
B) fruits and honey.
C) fruits and vegetables.
D) breads and cereals.

B - fruits and honey

The major storage sites for glycogen are
A) muscles and liver.
B) kidney and muscles.
C) liver and kidney.
D) liver and pancreas.

A - muscles and liver

The major symptoms of lactose intolerance are
A) gas, abdominal pain, and distention.
B) a rash, sneezing, and stuffy nose.
C) a headache and chest pain.
D) nausea and vomiting.

A - gas, abdominal pain, distention

Medical conditions related to metabolic syndrome are
A) Type 1 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and cancer.
B) Type 1 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke.
C) Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke.
D) Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and cancer.

C - Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease, and stroke

The most important dietary approach for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus is to
A) lose body fat.
B) eat regular meals.
C) maintain a constant ratio of carbohydrate to protein to fat throughout the day.
D) avoid sugar.

A - lose body fat

Of the following, which is a major source of sucrose?
A) Alcohol
B) Fruits
C) Grains
D) Sugar cane

D - sugar cane

The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of the sun's heat and light is called
A) biosynthesis.
B) anabolism.
C) photosynthesis.
D) glycogenesis.

C - photosynthesis

A reasonable and recommended goal for daily dietary fiber intake is how many grams?
A) 10 to 12
B) 15 to 30
C) 20 to 34
D) 25 to 38

D - 25 to 38

A simple carbohydrate with the chemical composition (CH2O)n

Sugar

A simple sugar

Monosaccharide

Simple sugars in large quantities have been shown to
A) cause obesity.
B) promote tooth decay.
C) cause diabetes mellitus.
D) cause hyperactivity.

B - promote tooth decay

Viscous (soluble) fibers
A) increase stool size significantly.
B) are not readily fermented by intestinal bacteria.
C) do not dissolve in water.
D) can lower blood cholesterol.

D - can lower blood cholesterol

What enzyme is responsible for carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine?
A) Salivary amylase
B) Bicarbonate
C) Pancreatic proteases
D) Pancreatic amylase

D - Pancreatic amylase

What is the major monosaccharide found in the body?
A) Glucose
B) Fructose
C) Galactose
D) Sucrose

A - Glucose

When eating a high-fiber diet one should
A) restrict fluid intake.
B) not be concerned about consuming large amounts.
C) avoid foods that are not whole grain.
D) increase fluid intake.

D - increase fluid intake

When insulin is released, it causes
A) the liver to break down glycogen and release glucose into the blood.
B) muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake.
C) fat breakdown in fat tissue.
D) the liver to make glycogen from protein.

B - muscle and fat cells to increase glucose uptake

Which of the following breakfasts would be highest in carbohydrate?
A) Grapefruit half, 2 fried eggs, 3 bacon slices, 1 slice of toast with butter, coffee
B) 8 ounces orange juice, 2 cups Cream of Wheat with 2 tablespoons sugar, English muffin with jelly, 1 cup whole milk
C) 8 ounces orange juice, 2 bran muffins, 8 ounces nonfat yogurt, coffee
D) 1 cup whole milk, 2 ounces sausage, 2 fried eggs, 1 slice of toast with butter

B

Which of the following foods would have the most fiber?
A) Kidney beans
B) English muffins made with enriched flour
C) Orange juice
D) Corn flakes

A - kidney beans

Which of the following hormones corrects a hyperglycemic state?
A) Insulin
B) Epinephrine
C) Cortisol
D) Glucagon

A - insulin

Which of the following hormones is released during stressful times to increase blood glucose levels, making more energy available for use?
A) Insulin
B) Epinephrine
C) Glycogen
D) Progesterone

B - Epinephrine

Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?
A) Insulin
B) Testosterone
C) Estrogen
D) Glucagon

D - Glucagon

Which of the following is not a Metabolic Syndrome risk indicator?
A) High blood pressure
B) High HDL cholesterol
C) Elevated glucose
D) Elevated triglycerides

B - High HDL cholesterol

Which of the following is not a monosaccharide?
A) Galactose
B) Fructose
C) Lactose
D) Glucose

C - Lactose

Which of the following is not a viscous (soluble) fiber?
A) Lignin
B) Gums
C) Pectin
D) Mucilages

A - Lignin

Which of the following is not true of dietary fibers?
A) They are mostly polysaccharides.
B) The bonds between sugar units cannot be broken by human digestive enzymes.
C) They cannot be absorbed by the small intestine.
D) They are absorbed in the large intestine.

D - They are absorbed in the large intestine

Which of the following is true about carbohydrate digestion?
A) Carbohydrate digestion is assisted by cooking, which softens tough skins.
B) Carbohydrate digestion begins in the stomach.
C) Chewing food does not assist in carbohydrate digestion.
D) Saliva production does not influence starch digestion.

A - Carb digestion is assisted by cooking, which softens tough skins

Which of the following shows the process of starch digestion?
A) Starch to lactose to galactose
B) Starch to maltose to glucose
C) Starch to glycogen to glucose
D) Starch to sucrose to fructose

B - starch to maltose to glucose

Which organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood?
A) Kidney
B) Heart
C) Liver
D) Pancreas

C - liver

The World Health Organization recommends limiting added sugar intake to ______ percent of our total kcalories.
A) 10
B) 15
C) 20
D) 25

A - 10

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