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Proteins are digested in which areas of the body?
A) Small and large intestines
B) Mouth and stomach
C) Stomach and small intestine
D) Mouth and small intestine

C - Stomach and small intestine

Plant proteins do not match our needs for essential amino acids and therefore are called _______________ proteins.

incomplete

High protein diets may be harmful for
A) the elderly.
B) athletes.
C) body builders.
D) those with kidney disease.

D - those with kidney disease

All of the following are true of high quality protein except
A) it can support body maintenance.
B) it can support body growth.
C) it provides 7 kcal/g of energy.
D) it contains all essential amino acids.

C - it provides 7 kcal/g of energy

Which of the following is a food that provides adequate amounts all of the essential amino acids?
A) Peanut butter
B) Navy beans
C) Milk
D) Wheat

C - milk

What enzyme is released by the stomach to digest protein?
A) Trypsin
B) Lipoprotein lipase
C) Pepsin
D) Amylase

C - pepsin

Johnny is 10 years old. He has had minimal protein intake for the last two years. He has just recently had surgery. What are the likely results of his deficient protein intake?
A) His surgical wound will heal quickly and effectively, but he won't grow effectively.
B) His surgical wound will heal effectively and he will grow normally because he can live off fat stores.
C) The size of his vital organs, including his heart, liver, and muscles, will decrease.
D) His surgical wound will not heal quickly and effectively, but he will grow effectively.

C - the size of his vital organs

The basic structure of an amino acid is C carbon atom with four different elements/groups bonded to it. The carbon has a hydrogen atom attached, a carboxyl group (acid group), a __________ , and a generic "R" group, which identifies the amino acid.
A) sulfhydryl group
B) hydroxyl group
C) amino group
D) methyl group

C - amino group

Wilma is an alcoholic. Her liver has been damaged to such a degree that it cannot produce the appropriate blood proteins for fluid balance. She develops a condition called edema, which is
A) cardiovascular disease.
B) extreme thirst.
C) loss of muscle mass.
D) the build up of fluids in extracellular spaces.

D - the build up of fluids in extracellular spaces

Proteins regulate the acid-base balance of the blood by
A) releasing an acid.
B) binding sodium ions.
C) releasing nitrogen.
D) acting as buffers

D - acting as buffers

Approximately how many different amino acids are used in the synthesis of body proteins?
A) 9
B) 29
C) 5
D) 20

D - 20

All of the following are essential amino acids except
A) lysine.
B) methionine.
C) threonine.
D) alanine.

D - alanine

Today the best estimate for the amount of protein required for nearly all adults is _____ grams per kilogram body weight per day.
A) 2
B) 0.6
C) 1.5
D) 0.8

D - 0.8

A hereditary condition caused by an incorrect amino acid in the amino acid sequence of a protein chain is
A) kwashiorkor.
B) edema.
C) marasmus.
D) sickle cell anemia.

D - sickle cell anemia

Which of the following is true about protein?
A) It is made up of combinations of approximately 20 amino acids.
B) It is made up of combinations of amino acids and fatty acids.
C) It is unique in that it is the only dietary component that contains selenium.
D) It is important primarily for increasing bone density.

A

Jack weighs 176 pounds. What would be his RDA for protein?
A) 27 grams
B) 64 grams
C) 80 grams
D) 10 grams

B

Treating a protein with acid, heat, or agitation will cause _______________, meaning that the three-dimensional structure of the protein has been altered (it unfolds).

Denaturation

When protein consumption is in excess of body needs and energy needs are met, the excess amino acids are metabolized and the energy in the molecule is
A) stored as glycogen and/or fat.
B) stored as amino acids in the liver.
C) excreted in the urine.
D) stored as amino acids in muscle.

A

In proteins, amino acids are joined by _______________ bonds

peptide

What is meant by the amino acid sequence of a protein?
A) Number of side chains in the protein
B) Order of appearance of amino acids in the peptide chain
C) Order of appearance of only the essential amino acids in the protein
D) Folding arrangement of the peptide chain

B

_______________ is an important protein that acts as a hormone. It is produced by the beta cells of the pancreas.

insulin

The nitrogen from amino acid breakdown is
A) oxidized to carbohydrate.
B) converted to urea.
C) stored in the liver.
D) converted to fat.

B

The most reliable source of vitamin B12 for the vegan would be

A) fortified soybean milk.
B) cheese.
C) milk.
D) eggs.

A

Which of the following is not true about pepsin?
A) Acid activates pepsin.
B) Pepsin works best in an alkaline environment.
C) Pepsin acts on food in the stomach.
D) Amino acid chains are the digestive products of its action.

B

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