head and Spine Injuries

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The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the:

brain and spinal cord.

The major mass of the brain is called the:


3. Coordination of body movement is controlled by the:


The _________ is the best protected part of the central nervous system and controls the functions of the cardiac and respiratory systems.

. brain stem

The tough, outer meningeal layer is called the:

dura mater.

The meninges, along with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates in between each meningeal layer, function by:

acting as a shock absorber for the brain and spinal cord.

The __________ nervous system consists of 31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 pairs of cranial nerves.


What part of the nervous system controls the body's voluntary activities?


Which of the following nerves carry information from the body to the brain via the spinal cord?


Which of the following nerves allow sensory and motor impulses to be sent from one nerve directly to another?


Which of the following statements regarding motor nerves is MOST correct?

They carry information from the central nervous system to the muscles.

A reflex arc occurs when

a sensory nerve detects an irritating stimulus and bypasses the brain by sending a direct message to the motor nerve.

The body's functions that occur without conscious effort are regulated by the __________ nervous system.


When activated, the sympathetic nervous system produces all of the following effects, EXCEPT:

pupillary constriction.

The hormone responsible for the actions of the sympathetic nervous system is:


When the parasympathetic nervous system is activated:

the heart rate decreases and the blood vessels dilate.

Which of the following statements regarding the cranium is MOST correct?

Eighty percent of the cranium is occupied by brain tissue.

The five sections of the spinal column, in descending order, are the:

cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal.

The spinal cord is encased in and protected by the:

spinal canal.

The cervical spine is composed of ___ vertebrae.


Lacerations to the scalp:

may be an indicator of deeper, more serious injuries.

Common signs of a skull fracture include all of the following, EXCEPT:

superficial scalp lacerations.

A temporary loss or alteration of part or all of the brain's abilities to function without physical damage to the brain MOST accurately describes a/an:

cerebral concussion.

A patient who cannot remember the events that preceded his or her head injury is experiencing:

retrograde amnesia.

An epidural hematoma is MOST accurately defined as:

bleeding between the skull and dura mater.

In contrast to a cerebral concussion, a cerebral contusion:

involves physical injury to the brain tissue.

Bleeding within the brain parenchyma (tissue) is MOST appropriately called a/an

intracerebral hematoma.

Which of the following head injuries would cause the patient's condition to deteriorate MOST rapidly?

Epidural hemorrhage

The MOST common and serious complication of a significant head injury is:

cerebral edema.

Which of the following sets of vital signs MOST accurately depicts Cushing's triad?

BP, 190/110; pulse, 55; respirations, 30

Common signs and symptoms of a serious head injury include all of the following, EXCEPT:

constricted pupils.

Distraction injuries of the spine are MOST commonly the result of:


When caring for a patient with a possible head injury, it is MOST important to monitor the patient's:

level of consciousness.

Any unconscious trauma patient should be assumed to have:

an accompanying spinal injury.

Once a cervical collar has been applied to a patient with a possible spinal injury, it should not be removed unless:

it causes a problem managing the ABCs.

When assessing a conscious patient with an MOI that suggests spinal injury, you should:

determine if the strength in all extremities is equal.

When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury, you should use the:

jaw-thrust maneuver.

Assessing an unconscious trauma patient's airway begins by:

manually stabilizing his or her head.

You should be MOST suspicious that a patient has experienced a significant head injury if his or her pulse is:


The MOST reliable sign of a head injury is:

a decreased level of consciousness.

It would be MOST appropriate to perform a focused physical exam on a patient who:

fainted and fell to the ground from a standing position.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is used to assess:

eye opening, verbal response, and motor response.

When a patient experiences a severe spinal injury, he or she:

may lose sensation below the level of the injury.

When controlling bleeding from a scalp laceration with a suspected underlying skull fracture, you should:

avoid excessive pressure when applying the bandage.

An indicator of an expanding intracranial hematoma or rapid brain swelling is:

a rapid deterioration of neurologic signs.

The effectiveness of positive-pressure ventilations when treating a head-injured patient can ONLY be determined by:

immediate reassessment following the intervention.

When immobilizing a trauma patient's spine, the EMT-B manually stabilizing the head should not let go until:

he patient has been completely secured to the backboard.

Which of the following statements regarding cervical collars is MOST correct?

A cervical collar is used in addition to, not instead of, manual immobilization.

The MOST important treatment for patients with a head injury, regardless of severity, is to:

maintain airway patency.

The ideal procedure for moving an injured patient from the ground to a backboard is:

the four-person log roll.

When placing a patient onto a long backboard, the EMT-B at the patient's ________ is in charge of all patient movements.


When immobilizing a patient on a long backboard, you should:

ensure that you secure the torso before securing the head.

After your partner assumes manual in-line stabilization of a patient's head, you should:

assess distal neurovascular status in the extremities.

A short backboard or vest-style immobilization device is indicated for patients who:

are in a sitting position and are clinically stable.

When immobilizing a seated patient with a short backboard or vest-style immobilization device, you should apply an extrication collar:

after assessing distal neurovascular functions.

If you do not have the appropriate size cervical collar, you should:

use rolled towels to immobilize the patient's head.

A tight-fitting motorcycle helmet should be left in place unless:

it interferes with your assessment of the airway.

When immobilizing a child on a long backboard, you should:

place padding under the child's shoulders as needed.

Which of the following statements regarding helmet removal is MOST correct?

Padding should be placed under the occiput as the helmet is removed.

After removing a motorcycle helmet, you should:

maintain manual stabilization of the head and apply a cervical collar.

You respond to a motor-vehicle crash involving a small car versus a tree. When you arrive, you find the patient, a 39-year-old male, still seated in his vehicle. He is conscious and alert and is complaining of neck pain. He does not have any immediately life-threatening injuries. You should:

immobilize his spine with a short backboard and remove him from the car.

A young male was assaulted and is found unconscious. Your assessment reveals bruising around his eyes and blood-tinged fluid draining from his nose. You should be MOST suspicious for a/an:

skull fracture.

A 45-year-old male was working on his roof when he fell approximately 12 feet, landing on his feet. He is conscious and alert and complains of an "ache" in his lower back. He is breathing adequately and has stable vital signs. You should:

perform a focused physical exam and immobilize his spine.

A football player experienced a possible spinal injury when he was tackled. He is conscious and alert, but tells you that he is having trouble breathing. His respirations are 28 breaths/min and labored. He is still wearing his helmet. You should:

carefully remove the helmet, immobilize his spine, and administer oxygen

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