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Pschotherapy

an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties

Psychoanalysis

method of psychotherapy that seeks to help clients gain insight by recognizing and understanding unconscious thoughts and emotions

Free association

whatever comes to mind

Dream Analysis

ego does not defend itself very well against the urges of the unconscious during sleep

Manifest control

immediate and conscious content of dreams

Latent control

the "true" meaning of the dream

Analyzing resistance

a stage in psychoanalysis when the patient avoids the analyst's attempts to bring threatening unconscious material into conscious awareness

Analyzing reference

a stage in psychoanalysis when the patient avoids the analyst's attempts to bring threatening unconscious material into conscious awareness

Interpretation

psychoanalyst's explanation of a patient's free associations, dreams, resistance...

psychodynamic theory

emphasizes internal conflicts, motives, and unconscious forces, several things are different. therapist is more direct, treatment is brief

Humanistic Therapy

assumes that people with problems are blocked in some way from reaching their full potential

The goal of Humanistic Therapy

maximize personal growth by adjusting the client's emotional reactions.

Carl Rogers and Client-Centered Therapy

allows the client to decide what to talk about, without direction, judgement, or intepretation from the therapist (4 aspects)

Empathy

attempt to appreciate and understand

Unconditional positive regard

attitude that conveys a caring for, and acceptance of,

Genuineness

authenticity- being aware of one's true inner thoughts and feelings and being able to share them honestly with others

Active listening

empathetic listening in which the listener echoes

Behavior Therapy

treatments that use learning principles to change behavior

Exposure therapies

treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear and avoid

Systematic desensitization

clients visualize a graduated series of anxiety-provoking stimuli while remaining relaxed (3 steps) KNOW!

Virtual reality exposure therapy

progessively exposes people to stimulation of their greatest fears

Aversive Conditioning

associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior; used to make unwanted behaviors less attractive

Operant Conditioning

modify behavior by rewarding desired behaviors and withholding rewards or punishing unwanted behaviors

Token Economy

people can earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior

Cognitive Therapies

teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions

Beck's Cognitive therapy

therapist helps clients to notice and change negative thoughts associated with anxiety and depression; caused by errors in logic, false beliefs, and thoughts that minimize personal achievement

Cognitive-behavior therapy

combines cognitive therapy with behavior therapy

Group Therapy

treatment of several unrelated clients under the guidance of a therapist

Family Therapy

treats the family as a system. Views an individual's unwanted behavior as influences by or directed at other family members;

Couples Therapy

focuses on improving communication between partners

Biomedical Therapy

prescribed medications or medical procedures that act directly on the patient's nervous system

Psychopharmacology

study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

Neuroleptics

antipsychotics; drugs that relieve the symptoms disorders

Antianxiety drugs

minor tranquilizers that lower the activity of the central nervous system

Antidepressants

drugs that relieve depression

Tricyclics

act on multiple neurochemical pathways in the brain

MAOIs

blocks the enzyme that breaks down serotonin and other NTs

SSRIs

affect only serotonin levels

Atypical antidepressants

miscellaneous group of drugs and when people fail to respond to other types of antidepressants, or who experience side effects from them

Mood-Stabilizing Medications

used to stabilize the mood swings associated with bipolar disorder

Electroconvulsive therapy

brief electrical shock administered to the brain, usually to reduce depression that does not respond to drug treatments

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

weak electric currents are induced in the tissue by rapidly changing magnetic fields

Psychosurgery

surgical procedures that destroy tissue in small regions of the brain in an effort to treat psychological disorders

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