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credo, credere, credidi, creditus, a, um

believe, trust, entrust (to entrust [acc.] to [dat.])

servio, servire, servivi, servitus, a um


pareo, parēre, parui, paritus, a, um


parco, parcere, peperci, parsus, a,um


noceo, nocēre, nocui, nocitus, a, um

harm, hurt, injure

placeo, placēre, placui, placitus, a, um


honor, honoris (m.)

public office, an honor

ius, iuris (n.)

right, law

opus, operis (n.)

work, task (opus est + [abl.]= there is a need if [abl.])

turba, turbae (f.)

crowd, disturbance

aetas, aetatis (f.)

age, lifetime, life

an (conjunction)

or (

haud (adv.)

not at all, not, by no means

procul (adv)

at a distance ( often accompanied by abl. of separation)

ob (prep. with acc) /propter (prep. w. acc)

because of, on account of

iuro, iurare, iuravi, iuratus, a,um

swear, take an oath

occido, occidere, occidi, occisus,a,um

strike down, kill

probo, probare, probavi, probatus, a,um

approve, commend, prove

dignitas, dignitatis

f. rank, worth, worthiness (due to a man's background and past services)

ingenium, i

n. character, talent, ability

lacrima, ae

f. tear

maritus, i

m. husband

mulier, mulieris

f. woman, wife


n. common people, crowd, herd
( declined like 2nd declension noun, but acc is same as nom.)

dulcis, e


iucundus, a, um

pleasing, agreeable

saevus, a, um

cruel, ferocious

frango, frangere, fregi, fractus, a, um

to break ( to pieces)

mereor, merēri, meritus, a, um

to earn, deserve

sono, sonare, sonui, sonitus, a, um

to (make a) sound

veho, vehere, vexi, vectus, a, um

to transport, carry


at last, finally
( in a question, suggests impatience)


if not


even if ( although)


but if

quod si

but if


or if





Locative Rule

NEVER use a preposition with names of cities, towns, small islands, domus, humus, and rus.

Ablative Place From Which (Locative)

For ablative place from which, just use the ablative.
*from the city- ab urbe (Note that this uses ad because it is not the name of a city)
from Rome- Romā
from Athens- Athenis
from home- domo

Accusative Place to Which

For accusative place to which, just use the accusative.
*to the city- ad urbem (Note that this uses ad because it is not the name of a city)
to Rome- Romam
to Athens- Athenas

Ablative of Place Where

For ablative place where, use the locative.
1st Declension
singular: ae plural: is
2nd Declension
singular: i plural: is
3rd Declension
singular: i (occasionally e) plural: ibus

in Rome: Romae
at home: domi

What is an Indirect Statement?

A statement which is not quoted directly but is quoted indirectly is called the indirect statement.

Formation of Indirect Statement

Verb of the head+ sbj. accusative+ infinitive

Indirect Statement
(Sequence of Tenses)

If both verbs occur at the same time, use present infinitive.
If the verb in the that clause is more past, use perfect infinitive.
If the verb in the that clause is more future, use future infinitive.
*If the main verb is a past tense (perf, imp, plpf), the future infinitive is translated as would.)

What is a Participle?

Verbal Adjective

Formation of Participles

Steps of Forming Present Active Participle
Go to 1st principle part, cut off o, add ans ,antis or ens, entis depending on the conjugation
Steps of Forming Perfect Passive Participle
Go to 4th principle part of the verb
Steps of Forming Future Active Participle
Go to 4th principle part, cut off the us, a, um, add urus,a, um
Steps of Forming Future Passive Participle
Go to 1st principle part, cut off o, add, andus, a, um or endus, a, um depending on the conjugation

What is a Gerund?

Verbal Noun

What is a Gerundive?

Gerund with an object

Formation of Gerund

Nominative form of the gerund does not exist. For nominative, use present active infinitive. The gerund is always impersonal so use the neuter 2nd declension endings when declining.
Formation- drop o from 1st part of verb, add and or end and then add 2nd declension neuter endings (i, o, um, o)

Formation of Gerundive

1. Decide case of the construction
2. Put the object in that case
3. Make the object agree in gender, number, and case

Common Uses of Gerunds

causa/gratia and the genitive of gerund- for the sake of; for the purpose of verbing
ad and the accusative of the gerund

Active Periphrastic

-Expresses intended action
-uses future active participle and a form of the verb to be (sum, esse)
-translated as going to, about to , intend to

Passive Periphrastic

-Shows obligation and/or necessity
- uses future passive participle and a form of the verb to be (sum, esse)
- translated as ought to verb, must verb, had to verb

Ablative Absolute

-A construction that is free from/unbound from the rest of the sentence
-denotes time or circumstance of an action
- grammatically independent from the sentence
- formed with a noun and noun, noun and participle, noun and adjective
- everything goes in the ablative
-noun and a noun is translated as the noun being the noun
-noun and adjective is translated as the noun being the adjective
-noun and a participle, participle translated regularly

How many ways can you form a purpose clause?


Ways to form Purpose Clause

1. ut/ne + present/imperfect subjunctive
If the main verb is present, future, or future perfect, use present subjunctive. If the main verb is imperfect, perfect, or pluperfect, use imperfect subjunctive.
2. causā + the genitive of the gerund/gerundive
3. ad + the accusative of the gerund/gerundive
4. If the main verb shows motion, use the supine (perfect passive participle with -um ending)
Relative Clauses of Purpose
5. If the object of the first clause is the subject of the subordinate clause, the clause is introduced by a nominative relative pronoun (instead of ut/ne.)
6. If the purpose clause contains a comparative idea, it is introduced by quo (ablative degree of difference.

Translations of Purpose Clause

to verb
so that the subject verb
in order to verb
in order that the subject verb
for the purpose of verbing
for the sake of verbing
to not verb
so that the subject not verb
in order to not verb
in order that the subject not verb
for the purpose of not verbing
for the sake of not verbing

What is an Indirect Question?

Indirect Questions are questions which are reported, not directly asked

Formation of Indirect Question

verb of the head + question word + subjunctive

Indirect Command

Indirect Command is formed with a noun clause and the subjunctive form of a verb such as persuading, urging, asking, commanding

Indirect Command Verbs that take accusative

hortor, hortari, hortatus sum- to encourage, urge (N.B. hortor, hortari is deponent)
oro, orare , oravi, oratus, a, um- to beg, ask
moneo, monēre, monui, monitus, a, um- to warn, advise
obsecro, obsecrare, obsecravi, obsecratus, a, um- to implore
rogo, rogare, rogavi, rogatus, a, um- to ask, beg

Indirect Command Verbs that take dative

impero, imperare, imperavi, imperatus, a, um- to order, command
mando, mandare, mandavi, mandatus, a, um- to order, command, instruct
persuadeo, persuadēre, persuasi, persuasus, a, um- to persuade

Indirect Command Verbs that take ablative

peto, petere, petivi, petitus, a, um- to seek, ask
postulo, postulare, postulavi, postulatus, a, um- to demand
quaero, quaerere, quaesivi, quaesitus, a, um- to demand, ask, seek

How many ways can you form obligation?


Formation of Obligation

1. debeo + present active infinitive
2. oportet/ necesse est + ut/ut..non + the present subjunctive
3. oportet/ necesse est + subject accusative + infinitive
4. Passive Periphrastic
-Future Passive Participle + the verb to be
-The verb MUST be passive
-The doer/agent must be in the dative case (dative of agent

Result Clauses

When the subordinate clause is the RESULT of the main clause
-If the sentence is Positive, use ut + subjunctive (subordinate clause)
-If the sentence is Negative, use ut...non + subjunctive (subordinate clause)

Noun Clause of Result

A verb meaning to happen, to result, to bring about may take a Noun Clause of Result
introduced by ut or ut..non + subjunctive.

Noun Clause of Result Verbs

accido, accidere, accidi:happen, come to pass
evenio, evenire, eveni, eventus, a, um:come about, happen

What are the Verbs of Fearing?

timeo, timēre, timui: to fear, be afraid
vereor, vereri, veritus sum: to fear, dread
metuo, metuere, metui, metutus, a, um: to fear, dread

Verbs of Fearing Rules

A verb of fearing can take the subjunctive:
-If the sentence is Positive:
ne + subjunctive
-If the sentence is Negative:
ut + subjunctive

Condition Clauses are often identified by...

si (if), nisi (if not), sin/quod si (but if). etsi (even if), sive (or if)

Simple Present

-Tense/Mood~Present Indicative
-Translation~If subject verbs, subject verbs.

Simple Past

-Tense/Mood~Imperfect Indicative (N.B. Sometimes Perf. Indic.)
-Translation~If subject verbed, subject verbed.

Future More Vivid

-Tense/Mood~Future Indicative
-Translation~ If subject verbs, subject will verb.

Future Less Vivid

-Tense/Mood~Present Subjunctive
-Translation~If subject should verb, subject would verb.

Contrary to Fact Present

-Tense/Mood ~Imperfect/Perfect Subjunctive
-Translation~If subject verbed, subject would verb

Contrary to Fact Past

-Tense/Mood~Pluperfect Subjunctive
-Translation~If subject had verbed, subject would have verbed

Temporal Cum Clause

Cum + indicative
defines the time at which an action takes place

Circumstantial Cum Clause

Cum+ subjunctive
defines the circumstances under which an action takes place

Causal Cum Clause

Cum + subjunctive
defines cause of an action

Concessive Cum Clauses

Cum+ subjunctive
Cum- Although
defines something in spite of which an action takes place

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