FSHN 120 final exam review - test three

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Inadequate intake of which nutrient during the first few weeks of pregnancy is associated with neural tube defects in the fetus?
a. iron
b. calcium
c. protein
d. folate

d. folate

Fetal demand for iron is highest during the
a. third trimester
b. first trimester
c. second trimester
d. entire gestational period

a. third trimester

Which of the following is FALSE regarding free radicals?
a. many diseases, such as cancer and heart disease, are linked to free radicals.
b. Free radicals are formed as a by-product of healthy metabolism
c. Exposure to pollution increases free radical production
d. Our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals

d. Our body has no mechanism to combat free radicals

A group of fat-soluble plant pigments that are the basis for the orange, red, and deep yellow colors of many fruits vegetables are called
a. prooixidants
b. chlorophylls
c. carotenoids
d. provitamins

c. carotenoids

Which of the following do sodium and potassium NOT have in common?
a. Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe, and potatoes
b. Both participate in maintaining fluid balance
c. Both are major electrolytes in the body
d. Both are involved in nerve transmission

a. Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe, and potatoes

Which of the following foods contains the lowest amounts of sodium?
a. 1 medium fresh orange
b. 1 large dill pickle
c. 1 oz of potato chips
d. 1 cup of canned vegetable soup

a. 1 medium fresh orange

Which of the following minerals can function as antioxidants?
a. selenium
b. chromium
c. fluoride
d. calcium

a. selenium

Most water is lost daily via the
a. kidneys
b. skin
c. colon
d. lungs

a. kidneys

which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?
a. the extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk for future fractures.
b. Calcium absorption is very efficient during pregnancy
c. The AI for calcium is the same for pregnant and non-pregnant women
d. Kale, collard greens, and broccoli are good plant sources of calcium.

a. the extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk for future fractures.

Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?
a. the protein in breast milk is easy for the infant to digest
b. the fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest
c. the DHA found in breast milk is essential to the development of the infant's nervous system and retina
d. the antibodies and immune factors found in breast milk help to protect the infant from infection.

b. the fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest

Which of the following are rich sources of vitamin C?
a. milk and cheese
b. seafood
c. green and red peppers
d. wheat and oats

c. green and red peppers

Which vitamins pose the greatest risk of toxicity?
a. vitamins A and D
b. vitamins C and K
c. Vitamins E and b12
d. Thiamin and riboflavin

a. vitamins A and D

After completing a 10k run, Bonita notices that her urine is brown and similar to the color of cola. What does this indicate about Bonita's hydration status?
a. She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immediately.
b. She may be inadequately hydration and needs to replace fluids
c. The color of urine is not a reliable indicator of hydration status
d. She is well hydrated.

a. She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immediately.

Which of the following are required components of antioxidant enzyme systems?
a. phytochemicals
b. antioxidant vitamins
c. antioxidant minerals
d. gastrointestinal microflora

c. antioxidant minerals

A chemical reaction in which atoms lose electrons is
a. radiation
b. reduction
c. oxidation
d. mineralization

c. oxidation

Which of the following foods would be BEST dietary source of preformed vitamin A?
a. cantaloupe
b. rice
c. carrots
d. eggs

d. eggs

A healthy weight woman should gain approximately how many pounds during pregnancy?
a. 25 to 45
b. 25 to 40
c. 25 to 35
d. 25 to 30

c. 25 to 35

The swelling of tissues associated with hypernatremia is known as
a. osmosis
b. repolarization
c. depolarization
d. edema

d. edema

Most of the pregnant woman's nutrient needs can be met by consuming a healthful, balanced diet, except for which specific nutrient?
a. calcium
b. protein
c. iron
d. folate

d. folate

Insensible water loss includes water loss
a. through respiration
b. through urination
c. during intense exercise
d. during illness or trauma

a. through respiration

major minerals are those that the body needs in how many mg per day?
a. more than 100 mg
b. more than 50 mg
c. more than 200 mg
d. more than 300 mg

a. more than 100 mg

Recommended weight gain during pregnancy is based on the
a. mothers weight before becoming pregnant
b. size of the fetus at 3 months' gestation
c. mother's height
d. mother's weigh at the end of the first trimester.

a. mothers weight before becoming pregnant

During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by how many kilocalories per day?
a. 350 to 600
b. 350 to 500
c. 350 to 750
d. 350 to 450

d. 350 to 450

What percentage of an adult's healthy body weight is fluid?
a. 50
b. 50 to 70
c. 50 to 30
d. 50 to 90

b. 50 to 70

What is the primary reason we sweat?
a. to maintain sodium balance
b. to maintain blood volume
c. to excrete waste products
d. to regulate body temperature

d. to regulate body temperature

Which of the following foods are the richest sources of vitamin E?
a. fruits and vegetables
b. mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds
c. milk and dairy products
d. meat, fish, and poultry

b. mayonnaise, vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds

a low birth weight infant is one who weighs less than how many pounds?
a. 6.0
b. 5.5
c. 6.5
d. 7.0

b. 5.5

Which of the following nutrients requires the MOST frequent consumption to assure adequate body stores?
a. vitamin A
b. Vitamin C
c. Vitamin E
d. Beta carotene

b. Vitamin C

Which of the following would NOT be good advice to give a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six-month-old infant
a. select commercial baby foods that are low in sodium or sugar
b. iron-fortified rice cereal is the first food to introduce to your infant
c. add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.
d. Introduce one new food at a time and watch for signs of allergies

c. add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.

Which of the following diseases has NOT been linked to free radical damage?
a. heart disease
b. cancer
c. arthritis
d. type 1 diabetes

d. type 1 diabetes

Which of the following statement is FALSE regarding fat-soluble vitamins?
a. fat soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis
b. fat soluble vitamins are stored in adipose tissue and the liver
c. over consumption of fat soluble vitamins can lead to toxicity symptoms
d. fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed along with dietary fat.

a. fat soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are BEST absorbed with foods that are rich in
a. Fiber
b. Vitamin C
c. Fat
d. Calcium

c. Fat

Why is it strongly recommended that infants NOT consume honey?
a. honey can lead to chronic diarrhea in infants
b. honey consumption during infancy is associated with the development of dental caries
c. infants do not like the taste of honey
d. honey contains spores of bacterium Clostridium Botulinum

d. honey contains spores of bacterium Clostridium Botulinum

Beta-carotene is a precursor of
a. ascorbic acid
b. zeaxanthin
c. Vitamin A
d. alpha-tocopherol

c. Vitamin A

Research studies have consistently demonstrated an association between a reduced risk of cancer and
a. the use of beta-carotene supplements
b. increased consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids
c. the use of vitamin C supplements
d. increased consumption of fruits and vegetables

d. increased consumption of fruits and vegetables

On average, which of the following individuals would have the highest percentage of body water ?
a. 35 year old overweight woman
b. 35 year old lean woman
c. 35 year old overweight man
d. 35 year old lean man

d. 35 year old lean man

Deficiencies of fat soluble vitamins are sometimes seen in people who
a. do not eat green vegetables
b. have a fat malabsorption disorder
c. are overweight
d. avoid dairy products

b. have a fat malabsorption disorder

Compounds that protect our cells from the damage caused be oxidation are known as
a. antioxidants
b. electrolytes
c. prooxidants
d. free radicals

a. antioxidants

The doctor has recently told Julie that she is anemic. Which of the following should Julie consume with her iron supplement to increase its' absorption?
a. a glass of orange juice.
b. Scrambled eggs
c. A tablespoon of castor oil
d. A glass of milk

a. a glass of orange juice.

The majority of dietary chloride is consumed from
a. alcohol
b. animal protein sources
c. vitamin supplements
d. table salt

d. table salt

of the following ethnic groups, which has the highest risk of developing hypertension?
a. Hispanic
b. Caucasian
c. Asain
d. African American

d. African American

Free radicals
a. are very stable atoms
b. are rarely formed by the body's fundamental physiological processes
c. are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke
d. damage the cell's mitochondria

c. are formed by exposure to air pollution and tobacco smoke

The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is
a. ovulation
b. high fluid intake by the mother
c. high protein intake by the mother
d. infant suckling

d. infant suckling

the MOST critical role that vitamin A plays in the human body is
a. acting as an antioxidant and scavenging free radicals
b. maintaining healthy vision
c. maintaining a healthy immune system
d. maintaining a healthy reproductive system

b. maintaining healthy vision

Hyponatremia is associated with
a. dehydration
b. insufficient intake of dietary sodium
c. overhydration
d. excessive intake of dietary sodium

c. overhydration

Diets high in sodium are associated with
a. diabetes mellitus
b. high blood pressure
c. obesity
d. breast cancer

b. high blood pressure

which of the following is NOT a factor that indicates as an infant is ready to accept solid foods?
a. the infant is at least six months old
b. the infant has high stores of iron
c. the infant's tongue extrusion reflex has begun to abate
d. the infant can sit up with or without support

b. the infant has high stores of iron

which of the following increases the RDA for vitamin C?
a. smoking cigarettes
b. being a vegan
c. taking supplements of vitamin C
d. drinking alcohol

a. smoking cigarettes

Bert goes to the gym and works out strenuously for about 45 minutes. After his exercise he weighs himself and notices that he has lost a pound. How much fluid should he drink to rehydrate his body?
a. 1 cup
b. 2 cups
c. 3 cups
d. 4 cups

b. 2 cups

Which of the following enhances the absorption of iron?
a. caffeine
b. vitamin C
c. oxalates
d. bran

b. vitamin C

Which of the following statements does NOT describe water soluble vitamins?
a. water soluble vitamins are rarely toxic
b. water soluble vitamins are absorbed easily from the intestinal tract into the blood.
c. Water soluble vitamins are stored in large amounts in the body
d. Water soluble vitamins are found in a wide variety of foods.

c. Water soluble vitamins are stored in large amounts in the body

At birth, Ramon weighs 8 pounds, if his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birthday?
a. 24 pounds
b. 20 pounds
c. 16 pounds
d. 32 pounds

a. 24 pounds

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