Sociology

Created by lizziewalton103 

Upgrade to
remove ads

According to strain theory, the underlying cause of deviance is that people experience a sense of normlessness. This sense of normlessness is referred to as ________.

Anomie

Suicide bombers in Iraq are accorded high praise by those who oppose an American presence in the Middle East and are considered heroic warriors. Such honor and praise is an example of a ________.

Positive sanction

Labeling theory, differential association theory, and control theory all represent the conflict perspective.

False

According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?

In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.

A serial killer has recently been convicted of the charges brought against him. In which state is he MOST likely to receive the death penalty?

Texas

Based on strain theory, there are four deviant models of adaptation and one mode considered to be socially acceptable.

True

The theory of behavior in which people who associate with some groups learn an "excess of definitions" of deviance, increasing the likelihood that they will become deviant is ________.

differential association theory

Susie is a first-year college student. Although she wants to be popular, she has refused invitations to attend underage drinking parties. Susie has a strong respect for authority, even when it conflicts with a simple matter such as attending a college party. Susie's decision in this situation demonstrates a quality of control theory called ________.

Inner Control

The percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested is known as ___________

Recidivism

The relativity of deviance is MOST aligned with which sociological perspective?

symbolic interactionism

Ritualistic procedures intended to humiliate norm violators and mark them as being moral outcasts of the group to which they once belonged are called ______

degradation ceremonies

By employing techniques of neutralization, even the most dedicated deviants can view themselves as conformists.

True

Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society.

True

Sociologists who view law as an instrument of oppression used to control workers are aligned most with which sociological perspective?

Conflict Perspective

Erving Goffman used the term ________ to refer to characteristics that discredit people.

Stigma

Violations of norms and rules that are written into law are officially called ________.

Crimes

Inner and outer controls that work against our tendencies to deviate is known as what theory?

Control Theory

The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

Because members of the capitalist class have the greatest opportunities for travel and to meet people from various walks of life, their children have a wide field of "eligibles" from which to choose a husband or wife.

False

In 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?

The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased.

In exchange mobility, about the same number of people move up and down the social-class ladder, which results in the overall social-class system showing little change.

True

Jeanann and her two children recently went on welfare. Research indicates that it is likely that Jeanann and her children will be in poverty ________.

for a year or less

If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.

Exchange

Poverty is relatively equally distributed in America by state, and between rural and urban settings.

False

The trend in the United States in which MOST poor families are headed by women is called ________.

the feminization of poverty

What are the three variables identified as defining social class?

wealth, power, prestige

What was the term C. Wright Mills used to refer to those who make the big decisions in American society?

the power elite

When used by sociologists, the term "wealth" refers to ________.

the value of a person's property minus that person's debt, a person's net worth

Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education.

True

Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy.

True

Politically, the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.

Working Class

Ruth owns the Head 2 Toe Boutique where she employs 15 workers. According to Erik Wright's model of social class, Ruth would be classified as a(n) ________.

petty bourgeoisie

Which of the following statements is MOST accurate with respect to determining social prestige in modern society?

One's occupational title is the greatest influence in determining social prestige.

What does status inconsistency refer to in relation to social stratification?

Individuals are ranked high on one dimension of social class and low on other dimensions.

What region of the United States has the highest clustering of people in poverty?

the South

What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?

the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women

Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism.

True

What is the term used to describe an attitude that exaggerates the virtues of a group, such as all Asian Americans being brilliant or all African Americans being great athletes?

positive prejudice

Discrimination can occur without the awareness of both those doing the discriminating and those being discriminated against.

True

Everyone who shares a respective ethnic identity expresses that identity through the same ethnic work.

False

Research has demonstrated that prejudice can have positive ramifications.

True

Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the U.S.A. Sam's actions describe ________.

prejudice and discrimination

The process of compartmentalization helps people who engage in genocide to maintain a sense of being good and moral.

True

The United States Census Bureau allows respondents to choose as many races as they wish in describing who they consider themselves to be.

True

When the Native Americans were pacified by the military in the late 1800s, they were forced to learn the English language, dress like the white man, renounce their religion, and give up their customs. This was a classic example of ________.

forced assimilation

Which statement is most
accurate regarding the meaning of race?

Race varies, depending upon the society in which its meaning is constructed.

As described in the text, what are two myths of race?

one race is superior to another; pure races exist

In society, which group has the greatest power, privileges, and social status?

the dominant group

Pedro, a legal immigrant from Mexico, and George, a white male whose family has been in America for several generations, have each applied for a car loan at the local bank. Pedro's loan was turned down while George was granted a loan. In comparing their credit history, both men had good credit, and their debts and income were comparable. This is an example of ________ against Pedro.

institutional discrimination

Prejudice is an action; discrimination is an attitude.

False

The split labor market and reserve labor force are most aligned with the symbolic interactionist perspective.

False

The group in society made up of the unemployed who can be put to work during times of high production and then laid off when they are no longer needed is called ________.

reserve labor force

Functionalists note the incest taboo serves to avoid role confusion in families.

True

The not-so-empty nest is a phrase that refers to when children ________.

have moved out as young adults, then return to live with their parents

It is still customary in U.S. society for a bride to accept her husband's last name. What is the line of authority this represents?

patriarchy

In some tribal societies it is highly encouraged for the son or daughter of one tribe to marry the son or daughter of a neighboring or rival tribe to build camaraderie and form an alliance. This pattern of marital behavior is called ________.

Exogamy

John was adopted as an infant by the Smiths, and has always considered them his real family. What do sociologists classify the Smith family as it is regarded by John?

It is his family of orientation.

The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.

False

The term family is difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world's cultures.

True

The term for children who return to live at home after college is ________.

adultolescents

Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?

It is about the same as the divorce rate of first marriages.

With the need for independence and greater opportunity, children are leaving home at an earlier age and less likely to return home after they leave.

False

Romantic love and its importance in marriage are

False

Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.

Nuclear Family

How has the rate of cohabitation changed over the past 30 years?

It is 12 times more common.

Husbands remain primarily responsible for earning the income and wives are primarily responsible for the house and children. This is an arrangement sociologists call ________.

the gendered division of labor

The rate of divorce among remarried couples is much lower than the rate of divorce among first time marriages.

False

The feeling of sexual attraction and idealization of another is called ________.

romantic love

Conflict theorists see religion as being the means of social change and an instrument to establish a perfect society.

False

Denominations are "brand names" within a major religion.

True

A state religion is referred to as a(n) ________ when the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

Ecclesia

From a symbolic interactionist perspective, what does wearing a cross signify for Christians?

It is a condensed way for the wearer to say, "I am a follower of Jesus Christ."

Karl Marx was an avowed atheist who characterized religion as "the opium of the people."

True

Sociologically, how would a cult be defined?

a new or different religion at odds with the dominant culture and religion

Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.

Charisma

What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?

It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.

What was Weber's term to describe the ideal of a self-denying, highly moral life, accompanied by hard work and frugality?

the Protestant ethic

Why can't sociologists empirically study religion?

Religion is a matter of faith that is beyond objective evaluation.

With 54 million members, which denomination has the highest membership in the United States?

Roman Catholic

Denominations are "brand names" within a major religion.

True

Ecclesia and state religions are the same thing.

True

Next week, Abraham and Hazel will attend the bar mitzvah of their nephew. Their nephew's bar mitzvah is an example of a religious ________.

ritual

The word church, as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community.

True

What did Durkheim call the common elements of everyday life?

profane

What does the spirit of capitalism refer to, as proposed by Max Weber?

It is a new approach to work and money that emphasizes investment to make profit.

Human sexuality illustrates how a group's definitions of an act, and not the act itself, determines whether or not it is considered deviant.

True

John desires the best things in life—a fast car, designer clothes, and membership in exclusive clubs. But rather than work his way through the system, he has discovered he can have all these things by selling crack cocaine in the inner city. How would Merton classify John?

An innovator

Napoleon Chagnon's visit to the Yanomamö tribe, where he observed tribe members appearing naked in public, using hallucinogenic drugs, and letting mucus hang from their noses, is a good example of ________.

the cultural relativity of deviance

The text points out a number of high-profile examples of white-collar crime by large corporations for which violators never went to jail.

True

The significance of names or reputations given to people when they engage in certain types of behavior is the focus of ________ theory.

Labeling

The ________ theory developed by Robert Merton is based on the idea that most people want to attain cultural goals, but not everyone has the legitimate means of achieving them.

Strain

The theory of differential association suggests that people who associate with certain groups receive an "excess of definitions" about either deviance or conformity.

True

According to control theory, when are inner controls MOST effective in deterring deviant behavior?

In the presence of strong attachments, commitments, and involvement with other members of society.

Because deviance is inevitable, the more important focus is to find ways to protect people from harmful deviant acts, to find ways to tolerate behavior that is not harmful, and to develop a system of fair treatment for deviants.

True

Control theory relies on attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief to explain the social bonds people develop with their respective groups and society.

True

Functionalists believe deviance has no useful purpose in society and only contributes to social chaos.

False

The chances of receiving the death penalty are greatly affected by geography (where the murder took place), social class, and gender.

True

Sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) used the term stigma to refer to characteristics that discredit people, including violations of norms of ability and violations of norms of appearance.

True

The concept of the relativity of deviance is BEST illustrated by which of the following statements?

It is not the act itself, but the reaction of others to the act that makes it deviant.

A person may voluntarily become a minority.

True

As described in the text, what are two myths of race?

one race is superior to another; pure races exist

The 1896 Supreme Court ruling that approved "separate but equal" accommodations for blacks and whites as a reasonable use of state power was ________.

Plessy v. Ferguson

Slavery as it was practiced in the pre-Civil War South and apartheid as practiced in South Africa are two examples of internal colonialism.

True

The practice the South employed after the Civil War to segregate blacks from whites was called
________.

Jim Crow Law

The relocation of Native Americans to reservations and the transfer of Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps during World War II are examples of ________.

direct transfer

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

ethnicity

n 1996, the U.S. welfare system was restructured. Supporters of this reform maintain that the new system rescues people from poverty and reduces welfare costs. What is the primary evidence they point out to support this?

The number of people on welfare has significantly decreased.

John worked at a steel mill for 25 years. A recessionary economy and competition with foreign steelmakers forced the closing of the mill. At the age of 45, John is unable to find work in his town, lives in poverty, and must go on welfare. What is the MOST likely cause of John's poverty?

Changes in the social structure are the most likely cause.

Politically, the social class of people who are more likely to feel that the government should intervene in the economy to make citizens financially secure are the ________.

working class

Based on the model of Gilbert and Kahl, the upper middle class is the class most shaped by education.

True

If 100 working-class people move upward on the class ladder and, at the same time, 100 middle-class people move downward, sociologists would consider this an example of ________ mobility.

exchange

Jim and Jan are working-class Americans making a combined income of $47,000. Today they won a $125 million lottery. How will this immediately impact their lives?

They will experience anomie.

What is the strongest variable in developing correlations to which social groups are in poverty?

raceethnicity

What is the upward or downward movement in social class by family members from one generation to the next?

intergenerational mobility

Which statement regarding the nation's income is MOST accurate?

The top 20 percent of Americans earn nearly half the income.

Commitment is the essential difference between marriage and cohabitation.

True

How has the age of the average first-time bride and groom in the United States changed since 1890?

Both the bride and groom are older than at any other time.

Research shows divorced fathers often have little contact with their children.

True

Sociologically, a family that consists of a husband, wife and children is called a ________.

nuclear family

Sociologically, what is a blended family?

A husband or wife brings a child into the new family from a prior relationship.

Sociologists use the term homogamy to refer to the tendency for people who share similar characteristics to marry one another.

True

Which sentence best describes the divorce rate of remarried people without children?

It is about the same as the divorce rate of first marriages.

Which of the following statements is not true about cohabitation trends?

Couples who cohabit before marriage are less likely to get divorced.

Someone with an outstanding gift or exceptional quality that draws others to them and their message is said to possess ________.

charisma

In state religions, the government and religion work together to try to shape society.

True

Marx's notion that religion diverts the thoughts of workers to the afterlife rather than toward rebellion against their worldly oppressors is expressed by his statement ________.

"Religion is ... the opium of the people."

The word church, as used by Durkheim, is synonymous with the concept of a moral community.

True

Because of the objectivity and accuracy of the poverty line concept, most sociologists agree that the concept of poverty is accurately portrayed in America

False

Because of tradition and a reluctance to change, few sons exceed their fathers' positions on the social-class ladder.

False

Conflict theorists would consider voting as being more of a ritualistic process than a demonstration of people exercising power in a democracy.

True

The higher a person's position on the social class ladder, the more likely they will become a victim of crime.

False

What is the relationship between births to single women and their level of education?

the greater the level of education, the fewer births to single women

Which of the following individuals would have the narrowest field of "eligible" marriage partners based on background expectations?

Christian, the son of a CEO of a major corporation

Based on the textbook, what are two ways a group becomes a minority?

the expansion of political boundaries and migration

What is another name for multiculturalism?

pluralism

What is a group of people with inherited physical characteristics that distinguish it from another group?

race

While race might reflect our biological heritage, ________ reflects our cultural heritage.

ethnicity

41 states still limit marriage to men and women.

True

Mark and Sally are married, both are working, and they chose not to have children. What classification best fits them?

They are DINKS.

The term family is difficult to define because of the many varieties of family displayed in the world's cultures.

True

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set