anat. ch. 28 spermatogenesis-histology

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spermatogenesis

Process by which the seminiferous tubules of the testes produce haploid sperm.

spermatogia

Spermatogenesis begins in the diploid ______ (stem cells)

mitosis

Spermatogia undergo _____ to reserve future stem cells and to develop cells (2nd primary sterpatocytes) for sperm production.

cytoplasmic bridges

The spermatids are connected by __________.

secondary spermatocytes

The diploid primary spermatocytes undergo meiosis I forming haploid ___________.

spermiation

The release of a sperm from its connection to a Sertoli cell is known as _______.

somatic cells

Diploid cells are also known as _______

23

How many pairs of chromosomes are their?

homologous

Each pair of chromosomes is ________ since they contain similar genes in the same order

autosomes

Non-sex chromosomes (22 of them)

x or y

Sex chromosomes are either __________

x chromosomes

Females have two _______

x, y chromosome

Males have an ____ and a smaller _________

gametes

Haploid cells

23

In gametes (haploid cells), their are a single set of chromosomes for a total of _____

meiosis

Gametes are produced by a special type of division: ______

reaching and penetrating

Sperm are adapted for ________ and ________ a secondary oocyte

DNA and acrosome

The head of the sperm contains _______ and ______

mitochondria

Midpiece of sperm contains ________ to form ATP

flagellum, locomotion

The tail of sperm is _________ used for ________

300 million

Sperm are produced at the rate of about __________ per day and, once ejaculated, have a life expectancy of 1-7 days in female.

ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands

What are the female organs of reproduction.

ovaries

______ produce 2nd oocytes and hormones

uterine tubes

_________ transport fertilized ova.

uterus

_______ is where fetal development occurs

vulva

Vaginal and external genitalia constitute the _____

mammary glands

__________ produce milk

ovaries

What are the primary sex organs?

eggs and sex hormones

What do ovaries produce?

pelvic cavity, uterus

The ovaries are located in the upper ________, on either side of the _____

ligaments

Ovaries are maintained in position by a series of ________

follicle

Shallow depression of cells that may produce an immature egg

birth

About 1 million primordial follicles remain at ______

500,000

Around _____ eggs remain at the time of puberty.

400-500

_________ eggs will be released by a female during her reproductive life.

oocyte

Immature egg cell

oogenesis

______ is the maturation of the egg

secondary oocyte

Mature egg cell

polar bodies

small nonfunctional cells

sperm

The secondary oocyte will not reach full development ( secondary meiotic division) until penetrated by _______

secondary meiotic division

________________ forms a mature, fertilized egg and a polar body (which disintegrates)

pituitary gland

At puberty, the __________ produces follicle stimulating hormone.

follicle stimulating hormone

______________ causes the ovaries to enlarge and some follicles to begin to mature

reproductive cycle

During a __________ several follicles may start to mature at the same time

ovulation

________ is the release of an egg.

pituitary gland

Ovulation is stimulated by hormones produced in the __________

follicle

During ovulation, the ________ swells eventually burst releasing the oocyte

disintegrates

During ovulation, if the secondary oocyte is not fertilized, it ______

uterine tubes

Narrow, 4-inch tube extends from ovary to uterus - Open near the ovary

fimbriae

The uterine tubes have moving finger-like extensions called ________

infundibulum

Open, funnel-shaped portion near ovary

ampulla

Central region of uterine tubes

isthmus

Narrow portion that joins uterus

mucus and cilia

Uterine tubes contract rhythmically and have _____ and _____ to help move the egg to the uterus

transport ova, fertilization

The uterine tubes _______ from the ovaries to the uterus and are the normal sites of __________

mucosa, muscularis, serosa

Layers of the uterine tubes

mucosa

Layer of the uterine tube: ciliated columnar epithelium with secretory cells that provide nutrients

muscularis

Layer of uterine tube that is circular and longitudinal smooth muscle

peristalsis

Helps move ovum down to the uterus

serosa

Outer serous membrane of the uterine tubes

fimbriae

_______ sweep oocyte into tube

cilia and peristalsis

_______ and _________ move oocyte along

ampulla

Sperm reaches oocyte in _____, fertilization occurs within 24 hours after ovulation

zygote

______ reaches uterus about 7 days after ovulation

uterus

An organ the size and shape of an inverted pear that functions in transport of spermatozoa, menstruation, implantation of a fertilized , development of a fetus during pregnancy, and labor

fundus, body, isthmus, cervix

Anatomical subdivisions of the uterus

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