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For better notes than we get in class...go to "Howstuffworks.com" and type in DNA replication. then read sections (DNA structure, DNA replication, Transcription , Translation, and Protien Synthesis)

Nucleic Acids?

DNA and RNA

Where is DNA found?

Nucleus

The info DNA does what?

guides the cell in making proteins and copies for the next generations

Nucleotides

Basic units of DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of 4 DNA bases

What does a nucleotide contain?

A sugar( Deoxyribose or Ribose), a phosphate, and a base

The nucleotide is the basic building block of _____?

nucleic acids

What are the two classes of nitrogen bases?

Purines- which are double-ringed structures (Adenine, Guanine) / Pyrimidines-single ringed structures (Cytosine, Thymine). The bases on the 2 strands of DNA pair up, pyrine with pyrimidine ( thats why (A) goes with (T) & (G) with (C)

What did Watson and Crick discover?

DNA has two sides/strands and that because they were twisted together like a ladder they create a double helix

What causes the DNA to twist?

the hydrogen bonds between phosphates

When a cell reproduces it passes all of its information to its ________ ________ .

Daughter Cells

Before a cell can reproduce it has to ________ .

Replicate

THe DNA strand can unzip down the middle and create a _______ for the next cell.

Pattern

DNA doesn't unzip all the way, it unzips in a small area called the _________ which then moves down the whole molecule.

replicatioon fork

DNA stands for what?

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

RNA stands for what?

Ribonucleic Acid

What sugar does RNA use?

Ribose

What sugar does DNA use?

Deoxyribose

How many strands does DNA have?

2 strands

How many strands does RNA have?

1 strand

RNA uses Uracil instead of what?

Thymine, so Adenine pairs up with Uracil

DNA never leaves the cell so its information must be copied by what process?

Transcription

The copying process is transcription and the copy is tRNA or mRNA ?

Its the mRNA, messenger RNA

Transcription is performed by a _______?

Enzyme

what is translation?

the assembly process, converting mRNA into a sequence of amino acids in proteins.

What is genetic code?

the nucleotide sequence transcribed from DNA to a strand of mRNA as a genetic message

What is a codon?

a set of 3 nitrogen bases that represents an amino acid

What is the role of tRNA in protein synthesis?

RNA transports amino acids to the ribosome to be assembled into a pattern

How many amino acids are there?

20 types

Proteins are made up of?

amino acids

The ribosome is made up of 2 parts that bind on either side of the _______ .

mRNA

Each tRNA has a binding sitre for the ________ .

amino acid

Each tRNA has a specific 3-nucleotide sequence called an anti codon that matches up with the _______ codon.

mRNA

If a codon on mRNA has the sequence U-U-U it has to match up with the anti codon tRNA __-__-__ .

A-A-A because adenine binds with Uracil in RNA

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