Radiologic Pathology

382 terms by Hibisicus

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Which of the following cannot be imaged by ultrasound?
1. Lung
2. Bone
3. Liver

C. 1& 2 only

A pattern of response of the body to some from of injury is termed what?

Disease

The following are all advantages of CT except:
A. Low radiation dose
B. Differentiation of a variety of soft tissues
C. Helical CT can complete scan in one breath hold
D. Images can be reformatted into any plane

A. Low Radiation dose

In every case, the end result of the inflammation process is regeneration of normal cells. T/F

false

Interference with the blood supply that deprives an organ of oxygen and nutrients is called:

Ischemia

An exaggerated response of tissues to stimuli is called:

hyperplasia

Which of the following arises from epithelial tissues?
A. Carcinoma
B. sarcoma

carcinoma

"Metastasis" means that a cancer has:

has come from a distant organ

The origin of a disease is it's:

etiology

The initial response of the body tissues to local injury consisting of 4 overlapping events

Inflammation

a disease that has no know underlying cause

idiopathic

a reduction in the size and or number of cells in an organ or tissue with a decrease in function

atrophy

infections of disease such a pneumocystis carinii and Kaposi's sacoma are common

AIDS

malignant tumors arising from connective tissue such as bone, muscle and cartilage.

sarcoma

an inherited disorder, with generalized connective tissue and cardiovascular problems

Marfan's syndrome

substances which stick to invading cells, bacteria, viruses,etc. to counteract them

antibody

a foreign "chemical" (drug, part of a virus or bacteria, or transplanted tissues) recognized as harmful.

antigen

a condition of few or no B and /or T cells resulting in the inability to fight infection

immunodeficiency

an excess of histamine release may cause this when injecting iodine contrast

anaphyllactic reaction

Atelectasis: easy or hard to penetrate

hard to penetrate

pheumothorax: easy or hard to penetrate

easy to penetrate

emphysema: easy or hard to penetrate

easy to penetrate

the number of rib pairs that should be seen on a chest film indicating good inspiratory effort is:

10

the maximum time of exposure to avoid heart motion as discussed in the book and in class is:

10 msec

the blood flow to the lungs that supply the lung parenchyma with oxygen and nutrients has what characteristic?

high pressure

which pathology is best demonstrated with inhalation and exhalation films?

pneumothorax

Alveolar, or air space pneumonia, in which exudate replaces air in the alveoli, creates the classic:

air bronchogram

precautions against airborne pathogens should be taken when radiographing patients with:

tuberculosis

the inhalation of asbestos creates a condition called asbestosis, which is one of the larger category of lung conditions called:

pneumoconiosis

a disease resulting in dilation of the distal bronchi that is best demonstrated by contrast bronchography is what?

bronchiectasis

an accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the lung and rib cage is called what?

plural effusion

an inflammation of the lung that can be caused by a variety of organisms, most commonly bacteria and viruses

pneumonia

a spherical density on a chest film consisting of a necrotic area containing purulent material

abscess

a disease of the lungs, in which collections of inflammatory cells collect around acid fast bacilli to form small masses. One example of this disease is the Miliary type.

tuberculosis

a disease in which obstructive and destructive changes in small airways lead to a dramatic increase in the volume of air in the lungs.

emphysema

a type of this disease, silicosis, occurs from inhalation of fine particles of silicon

pneumoconiosis

blood clot in the pulmonary arteries

pulmonary embolism

primary cancer from the bronchial tree mucosa

bronchogenic carcinoma

osteopetrosis: easy or hard to penetrate

hard to penetrate

osteoporosis: easy or hard to penetrate

Easy to penetrate

marble bone: easy or hard to penetrate

easy to penetrate

acromegaly: easy or hard to penetrate

hard to penetrate

a cell that produces new bone around the outer circumference of the bone is called what?

osteoblast

an example of a congenital bone disease is what?

spinda bifida

which of the following diseases are metabolic in origin?

gout

Excess of blood uric acid levels resulting in crystals deposited in the joints

gout

deficiency of vitamin D in diet

rickets

deficiency of calcium in the bones

osteoporosis

diminished proliferation of cartilage in the growth plates

achondroplasia

be careful with iodine contrast medium, as this disease process produces BenceJones protein in urine

multiple myeloma

Inflammation of a bone by introduction of an infectious organism (possibly during surgery or another aseptic procedure) is called what?

osteomyelitis

A variant of rheumatoid arthritis found is the S/I joint, moving up the lumbar spine creating the "bamboo spine" effect is called what?

ankylosing spondylitis

Radiographic visualization of calcification in adjancent tendons, and in or around inflamed fluid filled sacs (that reduce friction around joints) is known as:

bursitis

an incomplete fracture with the opposite cortex intact describes what?

Greenstick

Fracture of arch of C2

hangman's fracture

Fracture of the fifth metatcarpal

boxer's fracture

fracture of the shaft of the ulna with radial head dislocation

Monteggia fracture

Fracture of distal radius

colles fracture

horizontal fracture of lumbar vertebral body

seat belt fracture

ischemic necrosis

may be caused by thrombosis, frequently involves the femoral head, may need a reduction in technique

a benign projection of bone with a cartilage like cap occurring around the knee in children or adolescents is

osteochondroma

a congenital defect in which posterior elements of the spinal canal fail to fuse properly

spina bifida

an inherited disorder characterized by multiple fractures and the formation of wormian bones

osteogenesis imperfecta

a metabolic disease in which a generalized or localized deficiency of bone matrix causes a decreased mass per unit volume of bone. Caused by aging and hormonal changes

osteoporosis

destruction of bone followed by reparative process resulting in thickened, deformed and weakened bony structures

Paget's disease

a cancerous condition of the bone demonstrating a classic sunburst pattern

osteogenic sarcoma

a disease of unknown cause that is seen as a non-suppuartive (noninfectious) inflammatory disease of the small joints leading to a crippling deformity.

rheumatoid arthritis

a degenerative joint disease characterized by loss of joint cartilage due to wear and tear of weight bearing joints

osteoarthritis

with some or all of the stomach found above the diaphragm, this is the most frequent abnormality detected on UGI examination

hital hernia

Dilated veins in the wall of the esophagus; commonly the result of increased portal vein pressure

esophageal varices

inflammation of the stomach created by a variety of irritants including alcohol, corrosive agents, and infection

gastritis

most common form of peptic ulcer disease

duodenal ulcer

appearance of gas filled loops of the small bowel, but little gas in the large bowel.

mechanical small bowel obstruction

appearance of gas filed loops of small bowel and large bowel. Occurs to some extent in all abdominal surgery patients.

adynamic ileus

Also called Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract

regional enteritis

a telescoping type of bowel obstruction

intussusception

outpounchings in the colon wall representing acquired herniations of mucosa and submucosa through the muscular layers at points of weakness in the bowel wall

diverticulosis

"apple core"lesions are a common radiographic depiction of this disease

colon cancer

the long term destruction of liver cells and structure, the main cause being chronic alcoholism

cirrhosis

the most common malignant tumor involving the liver orginating from other organs

hepatic metastases

a mass of foreign material in the stomach ( ex: hair ball)

bezoar

the concentric circles seen on the small bowel

valvulae conniventes

the large concentric folds seen in the large bowel

haustra

this substance is stored in the liver after uptaking excess glucose

glycogen

finger like projections into the lumen of the small bowel for absorption of nutrients

villi

a twisting of the bowel upon itself resulting in strangulation and obstrustion

volvulus

inflammation of the tufts of capillaries that filter the blood within the kidney

glomeruloephritis

inflammation of the renal pelvis and the interstitial tissue between the kidney tubules

pyelonephritis

inflammation of the urinary bladder

cystits

also called renal cell carcinoma

polycystic kidney disease

a malignant neoplasm of embryonic renal tissue in the child, usually growing very large in size

Wilms tumor

a substance given off by the kidneys which will raise blood pressure:

renin

the area in the kindey's nephrons in which water and nutrients are reabsorbed:

proximal convoluted tubule

Gas forming bacteria produce a pneumogram of the kidney in which urinary disease?

emphysematous pyelonephritis

a scout film is always taken before an IVP:

to check for calcifications in the urinary system

a radiolucent stone will appear as:

a filling defect in the structure on the film

Which of the following do not belong?
A. Foley catheter
B. Miller-Abbott Tube
C. ureteral stent
D. nephrostomy tube

Miller-Abbot tube

Deoxygenated blood travels in what vessel?

portal vein, pulmonary artery, superior vena cava

Assessing damage to the myocardium after a heart attack is best demonstrated using what examination?

nuclear medicine perfusion scan

Contraction of which chamber of the heart forces oxygenated blood into the aorta?

Left ventricle

A potentially life-threatening condition that usally begins as a tear in the intima above the aortic valve is an:

aortic coarctation

produces the Coeur en sabor sign

tetraolgy of Fallot

A narrowing of the aorta just beyond the branching of the head and arms

coarctation

this condition is the inability of the heart to propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume

congestive heart failure

an accumulation of fluid around the heart

pericardial effusion

temporary oxygen insufficiency to the heart muscle cause severe chest pain termed:

Angina pectoris

what procedure is used to best determine the presence of coronary artery disease?

coronary arteriogram

the procedure of using a balloon to dilate narrowed coronary arteries is named:

percutaneous translminal angioplasty

a localized dilation of an artery involving the entire circumference of the artery wall is called what?

fusiform aneurysm

a non moving clot that forms in a vessel is termed an:

thrombus

A clot that breaks loose from a lower extremity vein will most likely cause an obstruction of blood flow in what organ:

heart

the term ______ refers to an inability of the heart ot propel blood at a sufficient rate and volume

congestive heart failure

an elevation of the pulmonary venous pressure is the most common cause of :

pulmonary edema

the most sensitive and specific noninvasive method of diagnosing mitral stenosis is:

cardiac arteriography

a major complication of rheumatic disease would be:

mitral stenosis

The heart has a specialized pacemaker named the:

Sinoatrial node

The accumulation of fluid within the pericaridal space surrounding the heart is termed __________.

pericardial effusion

An autoimmune disease

rheumatic heart disease

disorder characterized by intramural folds of fibrous endothelial tissue:

fibromuscular dysplasia

begins as a tear in the intima

aortic dissection

process in which fatty deposits develop in the intima and cause progressive narrowing

atherosclerosis

can be caused by syphillis, endocarditis or Marfan's syndrome

aortic insufficiency

Subdural hematoma is probably caused by ______ bleeding.

Venous

A demyelinating disorder:

Multiple sclerosis

movement of the brain within the skull:

a cerebral contusion

caused by a direct blow to the orbit

blowout fracture

inflammation of pia mater

meningitis

Plain radiographs of the facial bones are most diagnositc with the patient in the _______ position if possible.

Erect

the most common primary brain tumor is a _______

Glioma

A benign tumor that arises from the arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura is named:

meningioma

the most common neoplasm's that metastasize to the brain arise in the ________ and _________.

lung, breast

a condition in which brain impulses are temporarily disturbed, resulting in conditions from unconsciousness to violent seizures is termed what?

epilepsy

an inherited condition resulting in dementia and choreifom (jerky and uncontrolled) movements in the early to middle adult years is what?

Huntington's disease

Cerebral spinal fluid accumulation in the ventricular system caused by an obstruction somewhere in the system is called what?

hydrocephalus

the mass of white matter that connects the two brain hemispheres together.

corpus callosum

works with he cerebrum to produce skilled movements by coordinating groups of muscles.

Cerebellum

primarily functions as a relay center that receives and processes sensory infomation

Thalamus

A threadlike extension traveling away from a nerve body

axon

a condition in which an increase in red blood cells caused the hyperplasia of the marrow or secondarily living at high altitude is:

polycythemia

A neoplastic proliferaion of white blood cells

leukemia

A sex-linked recessive gene disease that only appears in males. Patients lack factor VII in the serum causing spontaneous hemorrhage or severe bleeding

hemophilia

a general term for the decrease in the amount of oxygen carrying hemoglobin in the blood.

anemia

The accumulation of abnormal amounts of fluid in the spaces between the cells or in body cavities is termed:

edema

_________ is the process by which white blood cells surround infectious organisms.

Phagocytosis

a tumor-like scar is referred to as a:

Keliod

Inflammation with pus formation is termed:

Suppurative

An interruption in the blood supply to an organ or body part is referred to as:

ischemia

A localized area of ischemic necrosis in an organ or tissue is termed:

infarct

a swelling caused by bleeding into an enclosed area is termed

hematoma

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