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Urine passes, in the order given, through which of the following structures?
A) collecting duct, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra
B) renal pelvis, collecting duct, bladder, ureter, urethra
C) collecting duct, renal pelvis, urethra, bladder, ureter
D) collecting duct, ureter, renal pelvis, urethra, bladder
E) renal pelvis, urethra, bladder, ureter, collecting duct

A) collecting duct, renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, urethra

The detrusor muscle
A) compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.
B) surrounds the renal pelvis.
C) functions as the external urinary sphincter.
D) moves urine along the ureters by peristalsis.
E) functions as the internal urinary sphincter.

A) compresses the urinary bladder and expels urine through the urethra.

Which nervous system structure(s) relays the sensation of urinary bladder fullness to the cerebral cortex in the micturition reflex?
A) an interneuron
B) parasympathetic preganglionic motor fibers
C) stretch receptors
D) postganglionic neurons in intramural ganglia
E) projection fibers
F) afferent fibers in the pelvic nerves

E) projection fibers

During the micturition reflex,
A) stimulation of stretch receptors in the bladder wall sends impulses to the sacral cord.
B) sympathetic motor neurons that control the detrusor muscle become active.
C) the internal sphincter is consciously relaxed.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

A) stimulation of stretch receptors in the bladder wall sends impulses to the sacral cord.

The micturition reflex is controlled by the parasympathetic nervous system.
A) True
B) False

A) True

The condition called ________ is characterized by painful or difficult urination. This condition can be due to pathologic or benign causes.
A) incontinence
B) dysuria
C) pyelonephritis
D) urinary retention
E) renal calculi

B) dysuria

Hormonal or metabolic complications such as those associated with diabetes or glomerulonephritis result in:
A) dysuria.
B) polyuria.
C) urinary retention.
D) anuria.

B) polyuria.

Intracellular fluid (ICE) is found only within
A) the cells of the body.
B) the interstitial space.
C) the cerebrospinal fluid.
D) lymph.
E) blood vessels.

A) the cells of the body.

The extracellular fluid (ECE) consists of the
A) plasma and lymph.
B) interstitial fluid.
C) cerebrospinal fluid.
D) all of the above
E) none of the above

D) all of the above

When pure water is consumed,
A) the ECF becomes hypertonic to the ICF.
B) the volume of the ECF decreases.
C) a fluid shift occurs and the volume of the ICF decreases.
D) osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.
E) the volume of the ICF decreases.

D) osmolarities of the two fluid compartments fall.

When water is lost, but electrolytes are retained,
A) the osmolarity of the ECF falls.
B) osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.
C) both the ECF and the ICF become more dilute.
D) there is an increase in the volume of the ICF.
E) none of the above

B) osmosis moves water from the ICF to the ECF.

Consuming a meal high in salt will
A) cause hypotension.
B) activate the renin-angiotensin mechanism.
C) drastically increase the osmolarity of the blood.
D) decrease thirst.
E) result in a temporary increase in blood volume.

E) result in a temporary increase in blood volume.

To reduce brain swelling by pulling water out of brain cells, a substance can be injected intravenously to increase the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid. Which of the following properties should this substance not have in order to be effective?
A) impermeable to brain plasma membranes
B) permeable to brain plasma membranes
C) soluble in water
D) nontoxic to neurons
E) permeable to capillary endothelium

B) permeable to brain plasma membranes

Which of the following bulk minerals has the highest recommended dietary allowance (RDA), at 4700 mg?
A) potassium
B) magnesium
C) iron
D) chloride

A) potassium

Which electrolyte is absorbed along the digestive tract via active transport only?
A) Cl-
B) K+
C) HCO3-
D) Fe2+

D) Fe2+

The principal cation in cytoplasm is
A) sodium.
B) potassium.
C) magnesium.
D) calcium.
E) chloride.

B) potassium.

Which of the following is required as a cofactor for hemoglobin synthesis?
A) zinc
B) phosphorus
C) copper
D) manganese
E) none of the above

C) copper...

Which hormone plays a central role in determining the rate of sodium reabsorption?
A) oxytocin
B) ECF
C) ADH
D) aldosterone
E) epinephrine

D) aldosterone

Which hormone(s) is released by heart muscle in response to excessive chamber volume?
A) ADH
B) natriuretic peptides
C) aldosterone
D) acetylcholine
E) PTH

B) natriuretic peptides

The most common problems with electrolyte balance are caused by an imbalance between gains and losses of
A) chlorine ions.
B) potassium ions.
C) sodium ions.
D) calcium ions.
E) electrons.

C) sodium ions.

The release of natriuretic peptides from the heart will cause the body to
A) decrease ECF.
B) excrete sodium ions.
C) both conserve sodium ions and decrease ECF.
D) both decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions.

D) both decrease ECF and excrete sodium ions.

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