Chapter 22,23 The Great Depression and The New Deal

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Stock Market

an exchange where security trading is conducted by professional stockbrokers

bull market

period of increased stock trading and rising stock prices

shanty town

an area on the edge of a town where poor people live in very simply built houses

hobo

person who wanders about and lives by begging or doing odd jobs

Hoovervilles

shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards. Named after Pres. Hoover

public works

projects such as highways, parks, and libraries sponsored by the government

Walt Disney

Film maker, cartoonist, visionary. He developed many famous characters as well as amusement theme parks.

Soap Operas

Popular radio and show dramas

John Steinbeck

United States writer noted for his novels about agricultural workers (1902-1968)

Dust Bowl

A drought in the 1930s that turned the Great Planes very dry.

Great Depression

a severe, world wide economic crisis which lasted from the end of 1929 to the outbreak of World War II.

Eleanor Roosevelt

Symbol of hope, immediate help. 'save America, do your part', BIG support for women and girls

speculation

risky buying and selling of stocks in the hope of making a quick profit

installment plan

buying an item on credit with a monthly plan to pay off the value of the good

Bonus Marchers

vets who wanted a "bonus" in their pay from the government, were not successful, attacked by MacArthur

bailiff

An officer of court having custody of prisoners under arraignment.

Herbert Hoover

31st President of the United States, Republican candidate who assumed the presidency in March 1929 promising the American people prosperity and attempted to first deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.

black market

Market in which goods are sold illegally

Black Tuesday

October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929

New Deal

The name of President Roosevelt's program for getting the United States out of the depression

gold standard

A monetary system in which currencies are defined in terms of a given weight of gold

Hundred Days

a special session of Congress that dealt with problems of the Depression

Fireside Chats

informal talks given by FDR over the radio; sat by White House fireplace; gained the confidence of the people

sit-down strike

work stoppage in which workers refuse to leave a factory

Social Security Act

created a tax on workers and employers. That money provided monthly pensions for retired people.

FDR

32nd President of the United States, Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms

deficit spending

When a government spends more than it takes in and goes into debt.

Shirley Temple

became the most popular film star during the Great Depression; made 27 movies during the 1930s

NLRB

National Labor Relations Act. Legalized labor unions, guaranteed right to join union and "good faith" bargaining.

polio

an acute viral disease marked by inflammation of nerve cells of the brain stem and spinal cord

Securities and Exchange Commission

The federal agency created during the New Deal that regulates stock fraud

AAA

Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; ruled unconstitutional in 1936; disbanded after World War II

safety net

government programs that protect people experiencing unfavorable economic conditions

Empire State Building

An office building in New York City, over one thousand feet high. Opened in the 1930s, it was for many years the tallest skyscraper in the world.

bank holidays

Created to stop bank runs and prevent further banks from going out of business

FDIC

Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: federal guarantee of savings bank deposits (initially up to $2,500; raised to $5,000 in 1934; now $100,000)

NRA

National Recovery Administration: established and administered a system of industrial codes to control production, prices, labor relations, and trade practices

Alphabet Agencies

Government agencies that came to be known by the first initials of their names.

John Dillinger

bank robber and mobster who was caught by Hoover, the capture of which catapulted Hoover into national prominence in the "Dillinger Case"

Pappy O'Daniel

was a conservative Democratic Party politician from Texas, who came to prominence by hosting a popular radio program.

Grapes of Wrath

Book about a family of migrant workers working during the Great Depression in the Dust Bowl

Huey Long

Governor of Louisiana, "Share the Wealth" wants to give $5k to all families

Charles Coughlin

A radio priest who was anti-Semetic and anti-New Deal. He catered away some support from FDR.

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