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Chapters 10, 15, and 16

The primary agent of socialization in the United States is the _______.
A.) Peer Group
B.) School
C.) Media
D.) Church

B.) School

Today, more than 90% of the school-age population attends school, compared with _______% in 1890.
A.) 7
B.) 17
C.) 27
D.) 37

A.) 7

According to the text, the latest data tells us that more than ______% of school-aged children report being bullied at least once in the past year.
A.) 30
B.) 50
C.) 60
D.) 70

C.) 60

According to the text, it is now estimated that one out of _____ children are unprepared when they enter kindergarten.
A.) 4
B.) 5
C.) 8
D.) 10

B.) 5

Since 1972, dropout rates have remained the highest for ______.
A.) Whites
B.) African Americans
C.) Hispanics
D.) Asians

C.) Hispanics

Students living in low-income families are approximately ________ times more likely to drop out than their peers from high-income families.
A.) 2
B.) 4
C.) 6
D.) 8

B.) 4

Those who fail to meet expected levels of school achievement are referred to as ______.
A.) Failures
B.) Truants
C.) Underachievers
D.) Latch-key kids

C.) Underachievers

In Wolfgang's chronic offenders study, what percent graduated from high school?
A.) 9%
B.) 29%
C.) 39%
D.) 49%

A.) 9%

Researchers commonly find that ______ is a stronger predictor of delinquency than such personal variables as economic class membership or peer group relations.
A.) Heredity
B.) School Failure
C.) Race
D.) IQ

B.) School Failure

During the 1950s, research by Albert Cohen indicated that delinquency was a phenomenon of working-class students who were poorly equipped to function academically. Cohen referred to this phenomenon as a failure to live up to ______.
A.) State standards
B.) Parental expectations
C.) Middle-class measuring rods
D.) National academic standards

C.) Middle-class measuring rods

________ refers to dividing students into groups according to their ability and achievement levels.
A.) Labeling
B.) Identifying
C.) Testing
D.) Tracking

D.) Tracking

In a few mostly inner-city neighborhood high schools, the high schools completion rate is ______% or less.
A.) 30
B.) 35
C.) 40
D.) 50

C.) 40%

Research shows that the _____ is one of the most important predictors of campus crime and violence.
A.) School climate
B.) Lack of parental involvement
C.) Gang membership
D.) Standardized testing

A.) School climate

As indicated in the text, upwards of _____% of students report bringing weapons to school on a regular basis.
A.) 10
B.) 6
C.) 3
D.) 1

A.) 10

The first, and best-known intervention program to reduce bullying among schoolchildren was launched in ________.
A.) Germany
B.) Norway
C.) England
D.) Japan

B.) Norway

Surveys indicate that ______% of teachers have been victims of crimes in schools.
A.) 3
B.) 7
C.) 17
D.) 30

B.) 7

Which federal agency has developed a profile of school shootings and school shooters?
A.) FBI
B.) Homeland Security
C.) DEA
D.) US Secret Service

D.) US Secret Service

Used in a number of school systems nationwide, _______ is a program focused on social and emotional development.
A.) PATHS
B.) Teachers for Change
C.) Big Brothers
D.) Positive Action

D.) Positive Action

Surveys show that about _____% of schools use one or more security cameras.
A.) 10
B.) 20
C.) 35
D.) 50

D.) 50

Crime in schools reflect the patterns of antisocial behavior existing _________.
A.) At the state level
B.) Within the school district
C.) In the surrounding neighborhood
D.) Such a pattern does not exist

C.) In the surrounding neighborhood

The case of New Jersey v. TLO, the court dealt with the issue of ________.
A.) Search and seizure
B.) School prayer
C.) Free speech
D.) Corporal punishment

A.) Search and seizure

In _________ the courts held that schools were allowed to administer drug testing programs to students athletes.
A.) New Jersey v. TLO
B.) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
C.) Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton
D.) Wisconsin v. Yoder

C.) Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton

The most important Supreme Court case concerning a student's right to passive speech was the 1969 case of ________.
A.) New Jersey v. TLO
B.) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
C.) Vernonia School District 47J v. Acton
D.) Wisconsin v. Yoder

B.) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District

In Ingraham v. Wright, the courts ruled on the issue of _______.
A.) Search and seizure
B.) School prayer
C.) Free speech
D.) Corporal punishment

D.) Corporal punishment

Justice _____ said, "Young people do not shed their constitutional rights at the schoolhouse door."
A.) Sandra Day O'Connor
B.) Hugo Black
C.) Abe Fortas
D.) Thurgood Marshall

C.) Abe Fortas

The courts upheld a school system's right to suspend a student who uses obscene or profane language and gestures in ______.
A.) Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
B.) Wisconsin v. Yoder
C.) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
D.) Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser

D.) Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser

In, _______, the court extended the right of school officials to censor "active speech" when it ruled that the principal could censor articles in a student publication.
A.) Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier
B.) Wisconsin v. Yoder
C.) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District
D.) Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser

A.) Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier

In Santa Fe Independent School District, Petitioner v. Jane Doe the Supreme Court ruled that ________.
A.) School prayers conducted by the faculty are legal at all times
B.) Prayers led by an elected student undermine the protection of minority viewpoints
C.) School prayers are allowed at football games but not in the classroom
D.) Prayer in school is a constitutional right regardless of who leads them

B.) Prayers led by an elected student undermine the protection of the minority viewpoints

Of the following, which required a school district to provide space for an after-school Bible club for elementary students?
A.) Good News Club v. Milford Central School
B.) Wisconsin v. Yoder
C.) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School
D.) Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser

A.) Good News Club v. Milford Central School

Repeated, negative acts committed by one or more children against another is defined as:

Bullying

______ may be the function of students' inability to see the relevance of what they are taught.

Student alienation

_____ policies mandate specific consequences for delinquent acts and do not follow anyone to avoid these consequences.

Zero tolerance

New Jersey v. TLO was concerned with issues surrounds the ______ Amendment.

4th

Jackson Toby contends that the disadvantages lower-class children have in school (i.e., lack of verbal skills), are a result of their:

position in the social structure

The norms of the peer culture are often at odds with those of adult society, and a _______ with a distinct social system develops.

pseudo-culture

_____ speech is a form of expression not associated with actually speaking words.

Passive

T/F: The Court has ruled that school officials have the right to censor "active speech" when that speech is disruptive of the learning environment.

True

T/F: The school experience is not a significant factor in shaping the direction of an adolescent's life course.

False

T/F: The relationship between school failure and persistent offending is unclear.

False

T/F: Safe Harbor is a bullying intervention program.

False

T/F: Student alienation has also been identified as a link between school failure and delinquency.

True

T/F: Police need probable cause before they can conduct a search, but educators can legally search students when there are reasonable grounds to believe the students have violated the law or broken school rules.

True

T/F: In regard to the drug testing of student athletes, the only consequence of a failed drug test is to limit the student's privilege of participating the extracurricular activities.

True

T/F: In general, students have the right to expect that their records will be kept private.

True

T/F: There is no real difference in criminal behaviors found in urban schools and those found in rural schools.

False

T/F: Poverty and economic marginality may directly impact learning and consequently a child's future chances of success.

True

On average, ______ juvenile delinquency cases are adjudicated annually.
A.) 875,000
B.) 1 million
C.) 1.2 million
D.) 1.7 million

D.) 1.7 million

African American youth make up ______% of the juvenile court population.
A.) 13
B.) 33
C.) 45
D.) 58

B.) 33

A _______ refers to a court appointed individual who protects the interests of the child in cases involving the child's welfare.
A.) Court appointed defense attorney
B.) Social worker
C.) Social attorney
D.) Guardian ad litem

D.) Guardian ad litem

The typical status offense detainee is a female charged with _______.
A.) Curfew violation
B.) Indecent exposure
C.) Liquor law violation
D.) Tobacco law violation

C.) Liquor law violation

The juvenile court did not include a prosecutor in its first 60 years of existence because _______.
A.) The court followed a social service helping model
B.) There was no constitutional right to legal counsel, so a prosecutor was unnecessary
C.) The judge acted as the prosecutor
D.) The child was always presumed guilty

A.) The court followed a social service helping model

The typical delinquent detainee is a ______.
A.) male between the ages of 13 and 15, charged with a property crime
B.) Female under the age of 16, who is a runaway
C.) Male over the age of 16, charged with a violent crime
D.) Female over the age of 16 charged with substance abuse

C.) Male over the age of 16, charged with a violent crime

In a more legalistic juvenile court, almost all jurisdictions require by law that a ______ be present in the juvenile court.
A.) Sheriff
B.) Court counselor
C.) Social worker
D.) Prosecutor

D.) Prosecutor

Project Confirm in New York is one example of an effort to reduce the detention of _________ who have been arrested.
A.) Intellectually disable offenders
B.) Foster care youth
C.) Status offenders
D.) Female offenders

B.) Foster care youth

What is the purpose of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974?
A.) It prohibits the placement of status offenders in secure detention facilities.
B.) It mandates that juveniles must have a hearing within 24 hours of placement at a secure detention facility.
C.) It mandates that any juvenile placed at a secure detention facility must have an attorney appointed to represent him or her.
D.) It provides for the mandatory education and health care of the youth while in the detention facility.

A.) It prohibits the placement of status offenders in secure detention facilities.

The U.S. Supreme Court case, ______, upheld the concept of preventive detention for juveniles.
A.) In re Gault
B.) In re Kemmler
C.) Schall v. Martin
D.) Miranda v. Arizona

C.) Schall v. Martin

Knowledge of a defendant's juvenile record may assist prosecutors and judges in determining appropriate sentencing for offenders ages _______, the age group most likely to be involved in violent crime.
A.) 18-24
B.) 14-18
C.) 15-19
D.) 20-24

A.) 18-24

Waivers are attractive to _______ because they are consistent with the get-tough policy that is currently popular.
A.) Conservatives
B.) Juvenile judges
C.) Prosecutors
D.) Liberals

A.) Conservatives

The formal complaint that initiates judicial actions against a juvenile charged with delinquency or a status offense is called the _______.
A.) Complaint
B.) Indictment
C.) Petition
D.) Trial information

C.) Petition

The ________ gives the juvenile the opportunity to have the case brought before a reviewing court after it has been heard in juvenile or family court.
A.) Final order
B.) Adjudication review committee
C.) Writ of habeas corpus
D.) Appellate process

D.) Appellate process

On average, ________% of juvenile cases are waived to adult court by the juvenile court each year.
A.) Less than .5
B.) Approximately 2
C.) Approximately 9
D.) Approximately 15

D.) Approximately 15

Of the states listed below, ______ does NOT offer any provisions for juvenile waivers.
A.) Iowa
B.) California
C.) New York
D.) Vermont

C.) New York

In _______, the U.S. Supreme Court ruling prevented a juvenile from being tried in 2 courts (adult and juvenile), holding that to do so is a violation of the double jeopardy clause.
A.) In re Gault
B.) Breed v. Jones
C.) Schall v. Martin
D.) Miranda v. Arizona

B.) Breed v. Jones

According to the text, ______% of African American youths are waived to adult court.
A.) 12
B.) 25
C.) 38
D.) 55

C.) 38

According to the most recent study of waivers, ________% of juveniles tried in adult criminal court are actually sent to prison.
A.) 13
B.) 27
C.) 40
D.) 52

B.) 27

The hearing held in juvenile court to determine the merits of the petition claiming that a child is either a delinquent youth or in need of court supervision is referred to as ______.
A.) Adjudication
B.) Disposition
C.) Transfer
D.) Review

A.) Adjudication

_________ refers to the hearing held in juvenile court to determine the "sentence" of the juvenile.
A.) Adjudication
B.) Disposition
C.) Transfer
D.) Review

B.) Disposition

The amount of proof required in a juvenile delinquency adjudication is beyond a reasonable doubt was the holding of the court in _______.
A.) In re Gault
B.) McKeiver v. Pennslyvania
C.) In re Winship
D.) Kent v. US

C.) In re Winship

What is the basic philosophy at the disposition hearing?
A.) Dispositions should be made in the best interest of the child.
B.) Dispositions should use retribution as the determination of the sentence.
C.) Under the doctrine of parens patriae, the parent should choose the ultimate disposition.
D.) Dispositions should only look at the evidence presented at the adjudication hearing.

A.) Dispositions should be made in the best interest of the child.

______ afforded juveniles the right to counsel.
A.) In re Gault
B.) McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
C.) Graham v. Florida
D.) Kent v. US

D.) Kent v. US

_______ mandated that juveniles have a right to notice of the allegation made against them.
A.) In re Gault
B.) McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
C.) Graham v. Florida
D.) Kent v. US

A.) In re Gault

Due process is addressed in the 5th and _____ Amendments to the US Constitution.
A.) 14th
B.) 2nd
C.) 8th
D.) 4th

A.) 14th

The type of sentence that specifies a fixed term of detention that must be served is referred to as a/an ________ sentence.
A.) Indeterminate
B.) Mandatory
C.) Determinate
D.) Individualized

C.) Determinate

In __________, the US Supreme Court held that the death penalty for juveniles was unconstitutional.
A.) Graham v. Florida
B.) In re Gault
C.) Atkins v. Virginia
D.) Roper v. Simmons

D.) Roper v. Simmons

Judges follow the probation department recommendations ______% of the time.
A.) 25
B.) 60
C.) 75
D.) 90

D.) 90

A _______ is a judicial order requesting that a person detaining another produce the body of the prisoner and give reasons for his or her capture and detention.

writ of habeas corpus

In ________, the US Supreme Court put an end to the practice of life sentences without the possibility of parole of juveniles convicted of non-homicide crimes in _______.

2010, Graham v. Florida

In _______, the Court held that any injury resulting from the disclosure of a juvenile's record is outweighed by the right to completely cross-examine an adverse witness.

Davis v. Alaska

Some states allow a juvenile adjudication for a criminal act to be used as evidence in an adult criminal proceeding for the same act to show _______.

predisposition or criminal nature

T/F: Juveniles do not have a constitutional right to counsel.

False

T/F: In some jurisdictions, juvenile court judges handle family-related cases exclusively.

True

T/F: Juveniles are detained in approximately 22% of delinquency cases.

True

T/F: A low percentage of juvenile offenders enter guilty pleas.

False

T/F: Youths who are diagnosed with a psychological disorder may be required to undergo therapy at a local mental health clinic; this disposition is considered to be a commitment to a residential community program.

False

T/F: All states consider 18 to be the age of release from juvenile correctional facilities.

False

T/F: Public schools can gain access to juvenile records.

True

T/F: Recent studies found that the mental competency of youths under the age of 16 to stand trial is about the same as similarly charged adults.

False

T/F: At the end of the adjudication hearing, most juvenile court statues require the judge to make a factual finding on the legal issues and evidence.

True

T/F: Studies have found that many transferred juveniles were not violent offenders but repeat property offenders.

True

The process and experience of the transition of juveniles and adult correctional settings back into schools, families, communities, and society at large is referred to as ______.
A.) Parole
B.) Integration
C.) Probation
D.) Reentry

D.) Reentry

Correctional centers designed especially for juveniles by federal, state, and county governments are called _____________.
A.) Juvenile jails
B.) Institutional treatment facilities
C.) Community treatment facilities
D.) Community prisons

C.) Community treatment facilities

Currently some critics believe _______ has improved conditions in training schools.
A.) Federal mandates
B.) Public scrutiny
C.) Shorter confinements
D.) Professionalism among staff

B.) Public scrutiny

________ is one of the most common treatment approaches and virtually all juvenile institutions use it to some degree.
A.) Behavior modification
B.) Milieu therapy
C.) Positive peer culture
D.) Individual counseling

A.) Behavior modification

______ is credited with taking the first step toward juvenile probation.
A.) Massachusetts
B.) Illinois
C.) New York
D.) Iowa

A.) Massachusetts

______ seeks to make all aspects of the inmates' environment part of their treatment and to minimize differences between custodial staff and treatment personnel.
A.) Milieu therapy
B.) Community treatment
C.) Guided group interactions
D.) Behavior modification

A.) Milieu therapy

By ______, probation had become a mandatory part of the court system.
A.) 1875
B.) 1890
C.) 1910
D.) 1930

B.) 1890

In ______, the court held that all juveniles confined in training schools in Texas have the right to treatment, including development of educational skills, delivery of vocational education, medical and psychiatric treatment, and adequate living.
A.) Pena v. New York States Division for Youth
B.) Ralstan v. Robinson
C.) Roper v. Simmons
D.) Morales v. Turman

D.) Morales v. Turman

The ____ prepares the predisposition report for the court.
A.) Judge
B.) Juvenile probation officer
C.) Prosecutor
D.) Juvenile's parents/guardians

B.) Juvenile probation officer

In _________, the US Supreme Court held that the offender's proven dangerousness outweighed the possible effects of rehabilitation.
A.) Ralston v. Robinson
B.) Santana v. Callazo
C.) Morales v. Turman
D.) Nelson v. Heyne

A.) Ralston v. Robinson

A non-punitive strategy for delinquency control that attempts to address the issues that produce conflict between two parties and reconcile the parties is referred to as _______.
A.) Step programming
B.) Restorative justice
C.) Innovative justice
D.) Therapeutic programming

B.) Restorative justice

Programs that integrate community protection, accountability of the juvenile offender, competency, and individualized attention to the juvenile offender are called ______.
A.) Therapeutic programming
B.) Restorative justice
C.) Innovative justice
D.) Balanced probation

D.) Balanced probation

The California 8% Solution speaks to _______.
A.) Percentage of juvenile offenders on probation in California
B.) Percentage of juvenile offenders who are responsible for the majority of crime
C.) Percentage of juveniles in detention facilities in California
D.) Percentage of juveniles in California enrolled in therapy programs

B.) Percentage of juvenile offenders who are responsible for the majority of crime

______ is the most widely used method of restitution in the United States.
A.) Monetary restitution
B.) Victim service restitution
C.) Community service restitution
D.) Independent restitution

A.) Monetary restitution

Today, all 50 states, as well as the District of Columbia, have _______ restitution programs.
A.) Formal
B.) Statutory
C.) Voluntary
D.) Informal

B.) Statutory

Approximately ______% of youths who received restitution as a condition of probation successfully completed their orders.
A.) 35
B.) 48
C.) 74
D.) 92

C.) 74

______ provide for juveniles who are orphans or whose parents cannot care for them to be placed with families who provide the attention, guidance, and care they did not receive at home.
A.) Group homes
B.) Foster care programs
C.) Family group homes
D.) Rural programs

B.) Foster care programs

In _________, the US First Circuit Court of Appeals rejected a suit brought by residents at the Maricao Juvenile Camp in Puerto Rico on the grounds that the administration had failed to provide them with an individualized rehabilitation plan or adequate treatment.
A.) Nelson v. Heyne
B.) Graham v. Florida
C.) Morales v. Turman
D.) Santana v. Callazo

D.) Santana v. Callazo

The ________ policy mandates that courts use the least restrictive alternative in providing services for status offenders.
A.) Safe Community
B.) Rehabilitation
C.) Institutional
D.) Decarceration

D.) Decarceration

______ established minimum standards for all juveniles confined in training schools.
A.) Nelson v. Heyne
B.) Inmates of the Boys' Training School v. Affleck
C.) Ralston v. Robinson
D.) Pena v. New York State Division for Youth

B.) Inmates of the boys' Training School v. Affleck

______ opened the first reform school for juveniles.
A.) Massachusetts
B.) Illinois
C.) New York
D.) Iowa

A.) Massachusetts

The first House of Refuge was established in ________.
A.) Boston
B.) New York
C.) Chicago
D.) New Orleans

B.) New York

Institutions in which educational and psychological services are used in a n effort to improve the conduct of juveniles who are forcibly detained are called _________.
A.) Foster homes
B.) House of Refuge
C.) Reform schools
D.) Cottage systems

C.) Reform schools

_____ makes the greatest use of the custodial treatment, incarcerating 672 delinquents in juvenile facilities per 100,000 juveniles in the population.
A.) Oregon
B.) South Dakota
C.) California
D.) Vermont

B.) South Dakota

_____ and ________ have the lowest juvenile custody rates (81 and 92, respectively).
A.) Oregon, Vermont
B.) Illinois, South Dakota
C. Vermont, Hawaii
D.) Hawaii, South Dakota

C.) Vermont, Hawaii

According to the Juvenile Residential Facility Census, _______% of the reporting juvenile facilities are overcrowded.
A.) 12
B.) 22
C.) 31
D.) 38

C.) 31

In ______, the courts condemned the use of corporal punishment in juvenile institutions.
A.) Nelson v. Heyne
B.) Ralston v. Robinson
C.) Morales v. Turman
D.) Santana v. Callazo

A.) Nelson v. Heyne

Research has found that the difference in custody rates between African American and white youths is the result of _________.
A.) Indeterminate sentences
B.) Disparity at early stages of case processing
C.) African Americans' reliance on public defenders
D.) Plea bargaining by white youth

B.) Disparity at early stages of case processing

In ________, the Court held that the use of tranquilizing drug violates the 8th Amendment prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment.
A.) Ralston v. Robinson
B.) Graham v. Florida
C.) Inmates of the Boys' Training School v. Affleck
D.) Pena v. New York State Division for Youth

D.) Pena v. New York State Division for Youth

The success of reality therapy depends greatly on ___________________.
A.) Highly structured counseling
B.) A system of punishments and rewards
C.) Warmth and concern of the counselor
D.) Parent/guardian involvement

C.) Warmth and concern of the counselor

A reduction in the number of arrests per year for youths who have been incarcerated or otherwise punished is known as a:

suppression effect

______ include forestry camps, ranches, and farms that provide recreational activities or work for juveniles.

Rural programs

Programs involving outdoor expeditions that provide opportunities for juveniles to confront the difficulties of their lives while achieving positive personal satisfaction are/is called:

wilderness probation

T/F: Passive electronic systems monitor the offender by continuously sending a signal back to the central office.

False

T/F: Surveys indicate that as many as 60-70% of adult prison inmates had prior experience with juvenile court.

False- 30-40%

T/F: A probation sentence implies a contract between the court and the juvenile.

True

T/F: According to the text, many citizens prefer community-based programs for all but the most serious juvenile offenders.

False

T/F: Evaluations of electronic monitoring show that recidivism rates are much lower in electronic monitoring programs than in traditional programs.

True

T/F: Requiring youth to reimburse the victims of their crimes is the most widely used form of restitution in the US.

True

T/F: Aftercare in the juvenile justice system is the equivalent of parole in the adult criminal justice system.

True

T/F: Six out of seven juvenile offenders in the residential placement are males.

True

T/F: Males are more likely than females to be incarcerated for status offenses.

False

T/F: Highly structured counseling in which a therapist helps a juvenile solve conflicts and make a more positive adjustment to society is called reality therapy.

False

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