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What is ITSM?

The effective and efficient process-driven management of quality IT services.

What is the added value of ITSM?

It is business aligned and maintains a holistic Service Lifecycle approach.

What are the 4 perspectives of ITSM?

People, Partners, Process, Products

What is a Process?

A set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and capabilities in order to produce an outcome and provide value to customers or stakeholders.

What are the characteristics of every process?

They are measurable, they deliver specific results, they deliver outcomes to customers or stakeholders, and they respond to specific events (triggers).

What is a process owner responsible for?

the improvements and ensuring that the process is fit for the desired purpose. They are accountable for the outputs of the process. Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process. Note: may not be responsible for performing many of the actual activities required for the process or service.

What is a service owner accountable for?

the delivery of a specific IT Service and is responsible for continual improvement and management of change affecting Services under their care. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service.Note: may not be responsible for performing many of the actual activities required for the process or service.

What is the Process Manager responsible for?

the operational (daily) management of a process. There may be several Managers for one the one process.

What are the 3 Service Provider Types?

Internal Service Provider, Shared Service Provider, and External Service Provider

What does the RACI model do?

shows how a process actually does work end-to-end across several functional groups by defining roles and responsibilities, as well as organizational structure.

What does "R" stand for in the RACI model and what is the definition?

Responsibility - actually does the work for that activity but is responsible to the function or position that has an "A" against it. Example: Process Manager

What does "A" stand for in the RACI model and what is the definition?

Accountability - is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place, even if they might not do it themselves. Example: Process Owner

What does "C" stand for in the RACI model and what is the definition?

Consult - advice/guidance/information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action taking place.

What does "I" stand for in the RACI model and what is the definition?

Inform - the function or position that is told about the event after it has happened.

Note 2 general rules for the RACI model.

Only 1 "A" per row to ensure accountability; more than 1 "A" would confuse this. At least 1 "R" per row; shows that actions are taking place.

Each process should have a ?

Process Manager. It is also reasonable for each phase to have a Manager.

IT Infrastructure

All the hardware, software, networks, facilities, services and support elements that are required to develop, test, deliver, monitor, control and support IT Services.


A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services.


The functions and processes utilized to manage services. Capabilities are intangible assets of an organization and cannot be purchased, but must be developed and matured over time.


A generic term that includes IT infrastructure, people, money, or anything else that might help to deliver an IT service. Resources are also considered to be tangible assets an organization.

Good Practice (aka Best Practice)

That which is successful in "wide industry use"


A team or group of people and the tools they use to carry out one or more processes or activities. Functions provide units of organization responsible for specific outcomes.


Refers to the person who pays for the service, or has the authority to request a service.


An organization's staff member/employee who uses the IT service.


Refers to a range of repositories for storing and accessing information - can include databases, filing cabinets, storage cupboards, etc.

What are 3 "why" questions of ITIL v3?

Why does a customer need this service? Why should the customer purchase services from us? Why should we provide "X" level of availability, capacity and continuity.

What dose asking the 3 "why" questions enable?

a service provider to provide overall strategic objectives for the IT organization, which will then be used to direct how services are designed, transitioned, supported, and improved in order to deliver maximum value to customers and stakeholders.

What are the goals of Service Strategy?

Design, develop and implement service management as a strategic asset and assisting growth of the organization. Define the strategic objectives of the IT organization.


A means of delivering value to Customers by facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs or risks.

What is the formula for Value?

Value = Utility + Warranty

What is Utility?

fit for purpose - features and support of service

What is Warranty?

fit for use - defines levels of availability, capacity, security, and continuity.

What are 3 Service Packages?

Core Service Package, Supporting Service Package, and Service Level Package

What is a Business Case?

a decision support and planning tool that projects the likely consequences of a business action. It is a justification for a significant item of expenditure. Includes information about costs, benefits, options, issues, risks, and possible problems.

What is the goal of Financial Managment?

To provide cost-effective stewardship of the IT assets and the financial resources used in providing IT services.

What are 3 activities of Financial Management?

Budgeting, IT Accounting, and Charging.

What are the benefits of Financial Management?

Enhanced decision making, Increased speed of change, Improved Service Portfolio Management, Financial compliance and control, Operational Control, Value capture and creation, Increased visibility, and Increased perception of IT.

What is the goal of Service Portfolio Management?

To assist the IT organization in managing investments in service management across the enterprise and maximizing their value.

What does Service Portfolio contain?

Service Pipeline, Service Catalogue, and Retired Services

What are the Investment Categories?

Run the Business, Grow the Business, and Transform the Business.

Service Pipeline

proposed or in development

Service Catalog

live/operational or ready for deployment services

Retired Services

decomissioned services

What does a Service Portfolio describe?

provider's services in terms of business value. They include the complete set of services managed by a Service Provider. These portfolios are used to articulate business needs and the provider's response to those needs, as well as prioritizing strengths, weaknesses and risks of you, the provider.

What is the goal of Demand Management?

To assist the IT Service Provider in understanding and influencing Customer demand for Services and the provision of Capacity to meet these demans in order to reduce excess capacity needs.

What are 2 ways to influence or manage demand?

Physical/Technical constraints, Financial constraints

Demand Management is responsible for understanding and strategically responding to business demands for services by...

Analyzing patterns of business activity and user profiles, and influence demand in line with the strategic objectives.


Patterns of Business Activity

What is the goal of Service Design?

Convert strategic objectives into portfolios of services and service assets.

What is Service Design's ultimate concern?

the design of new or modified services for introduction into a production (live) environment. Service Design is also concerned with the design of new and modified processes required to deliver and support these services.

What are the aspects of Service Design?

Service Solutions, Service Management systems & tools, Technology Architecture, Processes, and Measurement Systems and Metrics. All to ensure that standards and conventions are followed.

What are Service Design Packages?

They define all aspects of an IT service and its requirements through each stage of its Lifecycle. A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT Service, major change, or IT Service Retirement.

What are the typical Service Design Package contents?

Business Requirements, Service Applicability, Service Contacts, Service Functional Requirements, Service Level Requirements, Service Program, Service Transition Plan, Service Operational Plan, Service Acceptance Criteria, Service Design & Topology, Organizational Readiness Assessment.

Service Solution

includes all of the functional requirements, resources, and capabilities needed and agreed upon.

What is the goal of Service Level Management?

to ensure that the levels of IT service delivery are achieved, both for existing services and new services accordance with the agreed targets.

At the foundation level, what is the primary contact for customers?

SLM - Service Level Management

What is Service Level Management concerned with?

Designing and planning the SLM process and Service Level Agreement (SLA) structure, Determining the requirements of customers groups to produce Service Level Requirements (SLRs), Negotiating and agreeing upon the relevant Service Level targets with customers to produce SLAs, Negotating and agreeing upon the support elements required by the internal IT groups to produce Operational Level Agreements (internal) and with Supplier Management for External Suppliers and Underpinning Contracts (external), Guarding agreements with customer, Monitoring Service Levels, and Reporting to the customer.

Reports from all other processes should go to?

SLM; SLM will report back to the customer.

What are SLA Structures?

Service-based SLA, Customer-based SLA, Multi-level-based SLA (Corporate level, Customer level, and Service level)





Can you have a 'legal' contract/agreement with an internal department of your organization?



Service Level Agreement


Operational Level Agreement


Underpinning Contract


Service Catalog


Service Level Requirements


Service Improvement Plan

What is a Service Improvement Plan (SIP)?

formal plans to implement improvements to a process or service.

What does SLM work closely with?

Service Catalog Management and Supplier Management

What is the goal of Supplier Management?

To manage suppliers and the services they supply, to provide seamles quality of IT service to the business and ensure that value for money is obtained.

What are types of Outsourcing Arrangements?

Outsourcing, Co-sourcing, Partnership & multi-sourcing, Business Process Outsourcing, Knowledge Process Outsourcing, and Application Service Provision.

What is Outsourcing?

using one or more external suppliers to manager or assist in managing IT Services.

What is Co-sourcing?

An informal combination of insourcing and outsourcin, using a number of outsourcing organizations working together to co-source key elements within the lifecycle.

What is Partnership or Multi-sourcing?

Formal arrangements between two or more organizations to work together to design, develop, transition, maintain, operate, and/or support IT services. The focus here tends to be on strategic partnerships that leverage critical expertise or market opportunities.

What is Business Process Outsourcing?

Formal arrangements where an external organization provides and manages the other organization's entire business process(es) or function(s) in a low cost location. Common examples are accounting, payroll and call center operations.

What is Knowledge Process Outsourcing?

this is a new enhacement of Business Process Outsourcing, where external organizations provide domain-based processes and business expertise rather than just process expertise and requires advanced analytical and specialized skills from the outsourcing organization.

What is Application Service Provision?

Where external organizations provide shared computer-based services to customer organizations over a network. the complexitites and costs of such shared software can be reduced and provided to organizations that could otherwise not justify the investment.

What does Supplier Management manage?

all aspects of External Suppliers involved in provision of IT Services from tender, to monitoring and reviewing performance and renewal/termination of contracts.


Supplier Contract Database


Supplier Service Improvement Plan


Underpinning Contract

What is the goal of Service Catalog Management?

To ensure that a Service Catalog is produced, maintained and contains accurate information on all operational services and those ready for deployment.

What are the 2 parts of creation and maintenance of Service Catalog?

Business Service Catalog (plain english using clear and concise language, and customer-facing document) and Technical Service Catalog (technical language, non-customer-facing - IT Dept use).

The Service Catalog forms part of what?

The Service Portfolio.

The Service Catalog works closely with...

the Service Level Manager

What is the goal of Capacity Management?

to ensure that cost-justifiable IT capacity in all areas of IT always exists and is matched to the current and future needs of the business, in a timely manner.

What is the scope of Capacity Management?

all operational and development environments including all: Hardware, Software, Peripherals, Scheduling of HR, staffing level, skill levels and capacity levels.

What is the purpose of Capacity Management?

to find the right balance between resources and capabilities, and demand.

What are the Sub Processes of Capacity Management?

Business Capacity Management, Service Capacity Management, and Component Capacity Management.

What is Business Capacity Management?

Manage capacity tomeet future business requirements for IT services.

What is Service Capacity Management?

Focus on managing ongoing service performance as detailed in a SLA or SLR.

What is Component Capacity Management?

Identify and manage each of the components of the IT Infrastructure.


Capacity Management Information System

What are the activities of Capacity Management?

performance monitoring, demand management, application sizing, modeling, tuning, storage capacity management data, capacity planning, and reporting.

What is Performance Monitoring?

measuring, monitoring, and tuning the performance of IT Infrastructure components.

What is Demand Management?

Aims to influence the demand on capacity. This is the application of the policy laid out in the Service Strategy phase.

What is Application Sizing?

Determining the hardware or network capacity to support new or modified applications and the predicted workload.

What is Modeling?

used to forecast the behavior of the infrastructure under certain conditions.

What is Tuning?

modifications made for better utilizations of current infrastructures.

What is the goal of Availability Management?

To ensure that the level of service availability delivered in a ll services is matched or exceeds the current an dfuture agreed needs of the business in a cost-effective manner.

What is Availability Management concerned with?

availability of services and components - not people. There are proactive and reactive elements to Availabilty Management.

What is Availability?

The ability of an IT Service or component to perform its required function at a stated instant or over a stated period of time.

What is AMIS?

Availability Management Information System.

What is Reliability?

Freedom from operational failure.

What is Resilience?

The ability to withstand failure.

What is Maintainability (internal)?

The abilityof an IT component to be retained in or restored to, an operational state, based on skills, knowledge, technology, backups, availability of staff.

What is Serviceability (external)?

The contractual obligation / arrangements made with 3rd parrty external suppliers Measured by Availability, reliability, and maintainability of IT Service and components under control of the external suppliers. Managed by Supplier Management in Service Design.

What is Vital Business Function (VBF)?

The business critical elements of the business process supported by an IT Service.

What is MTRS?

Mean time to restore service - Downtime.

What is MTBF?

Mean time between failures - Uptime.

What is the goal of IT Service Continuity Management?

To support the overall Business Continuity Managemeny by ensuring that the required IT infrastructure and the IT service provision can be recovered within required and agreed business time scales.

What is the scope and focus of IT Service Continuity Management?

The scope of IT Service Continuity Management considers all identified critical business processes and IT service(s) that underpin them. Focuses on major disruptions.

What are the recovery options of IT Service Continuity Management?

Do nothing, manual back-up, reciprocal agreement, gradual recovery (cold standby, $), intermediate recovery (warm standby, $$), fast recovery (hot standby, $$$), immediate recovery (hot standby, $$$).

What is Disaster?

not part of daily operational activities and requires a separate system.

What is Business Continuity Management (BCM)?

Strategies and actions to take place to continue Business Processes in the case of disaster.

What is Business Impact Analysis (BIA)?

Quantifies the impact loss of IT service would have on the business.

What is Risk Assessment?

Evaluate Assets, Threats and Vulnerabilities.

What is a Countermeasure?

This term can be used to refer to any type of control and is most often used when referring to measures that increase resilience, fault tolerance or reliability of an IT Service.

What is the goal opf Information Security Management?

To align IT security with business security, and ensure that information security is effectively managed in all service and IT Service Management activities.

What is the scope of Information Security Management?

To ensure that confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA) of an organization's assets, information data and IT services is maintained. Defines policies, standards and measures.

What are the 4 perspectives that Security Management must consider to ensure a balanced approach to security?

Ogranizational, Procedural, Physical, and Technical

What are the Security Measures?

Preventaion/Reduction, Detection/Repression, Correction/Recovery, and Evaluation.

What is Confidentiality?

Protecting information against unauthorized access and use.

What is Integrity?

Accuracy, completeness and timeliness of the information.

What is Availability?

The information should be accessible at any agreed time. This depends on the continuity provided by the information processing systems.

What is Security Baseline?

The security level adopted by the IT organization for its own security and from the point of view of good 'due diligence'.

What is Security Incident?

Any incident that may interfere with achieving the SLA security requirements; materialization of a threat.

What is the goal of Service Transition?

the development and improvement of capabilities for transitioning new and changed services into operation.

What is the focus of Service Transition?

developing the ability/capability for the IT Department to transtion (build, test, and release) ANY service in a consistent and repeatable way. This will enable IT departments to effectively manage MANY changes/transitions. The processes contained within Service Transition have this responsibility.

What would the Service Design Manager hand over and to who?

Service Design Package, Service Transition Manager.

What should be involved early in the design of services?

Service Transition

What is the goal of Knowledge Management?

to enable organizations to improve the quality of management decision making by ensuring that reliable and secure information and data is available throughout the service lifecycle.

What is the primary purpose of Knowledge Management?

to improve efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge. This requires accessible, quality and relevant data and information to be available to staff.

Describe the Data to Wisdom Graph

Data - Information - Knowledge - Wisdom (DIKW). X axis is Understanding, Y axis is Context, Data is center point. 45 degree angle from data: Information - who, what, when and where; Knowledge - How; Wisdom - Why.

What is CMDB?

Content Management Database

What is CMS?

Configuration Management System which contains the CMDB.

What is SKMS?

Service Knowledge Management System which contains the CMS, which contains the CMDB.

What is the goal of Service Asset and Configuration Management?

To support the agreed IT service provision by managing, controlling, storing, and providing information about Configuration Items (CIs) and Service Assets throughout their life cycle.

What are terms that 'hint' to Service Asset and Configuration Management?

'logical model' and 'maintaining accurate records'

What is the scope of Service Asset and Configuration Management?

cover interfaces to internal and external service providers where there are assets and configuration items that need to be controlled (e.g. shared assets).

What are key activities of Service Asset and Configuration Management?

Management and Planning, Identification, Status Accounting, Reporting, Verification and Audit, and Control.

What is Configuration Item (CI)?

Any component that support an IT service.

What is Attribute?

Specific information about CIs.

What is CI Level?

Recording and reporting of CIs at the level that the business requires.

What is Status accounting?

Reporting of all current and historical data about each CI throughout its lifecycle.

What is Configuration baseline?

Configuration established at a specific point in time, captures both the structure and details of a configuration. Used as a reference point for later comparison.

What is the goal of Change Management?

to ensure that standardization methods and procedures are used for efficient and prompt handling of all changes, in order to minimize the impact of change-related incidents upon service quality, and consequently to improve the day-to-day operations of the organization. the "big overseer" of all changes that may affect the quality of IT Services.

What are the 3 Change Models?

Normal, Standard, and Emergency

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