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Motivation at work 05/06/2013

When an employee's input-outcome ratio is less favorable than that of a comparison other, ____ has occurred.

Correct Answer:
underpayment inequity

Which of the following reinforcement schedules targets behavior on the basis of a varying number of times that conduct must occur?

Correct Answer:
Variable ratio

Which of the following reinforcement schedules targets behavior on the basis of how many times the conduct occurs?

Correct Answer:
Ratio

Which of the levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs states that a safe environment is a motivational factor?

Correct Answer:
Security

How many levels appear in Alderfer's ERG theory?

Correct Answer:
3

Physiological needs are the lowest level in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Correct Answer: True

According to agency theory, which of the following is NOT a fundamental difference between owners and managers?

Correct Answer:
Managers are more inclined than owners to spend resources on activities that are not essential to organizational profitability.

Sally, a supermarket courtesy clerk, values the extra money she receives from her employer based on the customer service awards and bonuses she has received over the last year. This is an example of:

Correct Answer:
Valence

Benjamin sees no reason to put forth extra effort to help his employer reach monthly production targets. After all, Benjamin has put forth effort in the past and did not get any reward. Benjamin's behavior can be explained by

Correct Answer:
expectancy theory and reinforcement theory.

Self-actualization needs are the highest level in Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.

Correct Answer: True

Research shows that general goals are much more effective at increasing employee performance than are specific goals.

Correct Answer: False

Under her employer's incentive pay system, Vicky's team sells the most real estate and wins a trip to Hawaii. Based on reinforcement theory, what is the trip?

Correct Answer:
Outcome

In Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation, what element can be used to satisfy individual needs?

Correct Answer:
Both motivators and hygiene factors

The ERG theory contains 2 levels, which are known as belongingness and relatedness.

Correct Answer: False

Don believed that if he satisfied his customers based on the methods covered in his company's sales training seminar, his tips would increase. Don's employer was successful at building what component of motivation?

Correct Answer:
Instrumentality

What is the basis of reinforcement theory?

Correct Answer:
Behavior is a function of its consequences.

Scenario 13.1
John Davis, a human resource manager for a medium-size chain of hotels, is trying to motivate the company's employees with an updated compensation plan. There are two groups of operating employees. Line employees are responsible for dealing directly with customers, and their performance objectives are related to providing high-quality customer service. To do this, line personnel must undergo regular training to update their customer service skills. Operating managers are responsible for monitoring the activities of the line personnel and providing instructional/developmental support when needed. Currently, the line personnel are paid on an hourly basis, while the operating managers are paid salaries. If employees earn adequate performance appraisals, they can receive generous bonuses and pay raises. However, when performance evaluations are unacceptable, employees do not receive any rewards. John believes that his new plan to give employees shares of profit and stock on the basis of the results of performance evaluations will further motivate employees and managers.
Refer to Scenario 13.1. ____ occurs when performance evaluation results are not acceptable.

Correct Answer:
Extinction

Which of the levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs states that having a positive view of one's self is a motivational factor?

Correct Answer:
Esteem

In reinforcement theory, the response is the behavior that the person exhibits when she or he encounters the stimulus.

Correct Answer: True

The concept that people who have goals work harder than those persons who do not have goals is covered in

Correct Answer:
goal theory.

Creative behavior involves doing things at work that are innovative and generate value for the company.

Correct Answer: True

Which component of expectancy theory covers the performance-to-outcomes expectancy?

Correct Answer:
Instrumentality

Which of the following reinforcement schedules targets behavior on the basis of a constant amount of time that must transpire?

Correct Answer:
Fixed interval

Which of the following reinforcement schedules targets behavior on the basis of a varying amount of time that must transpire?

Correct Answer:
Variable interval

Which of the levels in Maslow's hierarchy of needs states that food, water, and shelter are motivational factors?

Correct Answer:
Physiological

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