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Which of the following is not a function of the respiratory system?
A. It helps control the pH of body fluids.
B. It promotes the flow of lymph and venous blood.
C. It helps regulate blood pressure.
D. It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.
E. It helps with defecation.

D. It assists in the synthesis of vasodilators.

The upper respiratory tract extends
A. from the nose through the trachea.
B. from the nose through the pharynx.
C. from the nose through the larynx.
D. from the nose through the alveoli.
E. from the nose through the lungs.

C. from the nose through the larynx.

The nose is divided into right and left halves termed the
A. nasal cavities.
B. nasal fossae.
C. nasal septa.
D. nasal vestibules.
E. nasal apertures.

B. nasal fossae.

Which two ligaments extend from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages?
A. vestibular and vocal ligaments
B. laryngeal and corniculate
C. corniculate and cricoid
D. cricoids and arytenoids
E. thyrohyoid and cricoids

A. vestibular and vocal ligaments

The most numerous cells in the lungs are called
A. mucosal cells.
B. type I alveolar cells.
C. type II alveolar cells.
D. dust cells. E. vibrissae.

D. dust cells.

Each alveolus is surrounded by a basket of blood capillaries supplied by
A. the aorta.
B. the pulmonary artery.
C. the pulmonary vein.
D. the inferior vena cava.
E. the superior vena cava.

B. the pulmonary artery.

Which of the following does not have cilia?
A. the nasal cavity
B. the trachea
C. the bronchi
D. terminal bronchioles
E. respiratory bronchioles

E. respiratory bronchioles

What is the basic distinction between an alveolar duct and an alveolar atrium?
A. their shape
B. their size
C. their function
D. their epithelial type
E. presence or absence of cilia

A. their shape

This structure is about 5cm long and slightly narrower and more horizontal than the one on the opposite side.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

D. 4

Although the heart is not included in this illustration, its apex would lie at point
A. 3.
B. 4.
C. 5.
D. 7.
E. 9.

D. 7.

Compared to any other point on this figure, the highest ventilation-perfusion ratio would be found at point
A. 1.
B. 2.
C. 3.
D. 6.
E. 9.

C. 3.

Structure 2 is the
A. thyroid cartilage.
B. corniculate cartilage.
C. cricoid cartilage.
D. first tracheal cartilage. E. vocal ligament.

C. cricoid cartilage.

There is a total of five of these structures in the respiratory system.
A. 4
B.
C. 4 and 8
D. 6 and 8
E. 6

D. 6 and 8

Crude sounds are formed into intelligible speech by all of the following except
A. the pharynx.
B. the epiglottis.
C. the oral cavity.
D. the tongue.
E. the lips.

B. the epiglottis.

Which of the following cartilages is largest?
A. the corniculate cartilage
B. the epiglottic cartilage
C. the thyroid cartilage
D. the cricoid cartilage
E. the arytenoid cartilage

C. the thyroid cartilage

Output from higher brain centers can bypass both the DRG and VRG and go directly to _____, which controls the accessory muscles of respiration.

F

Which issues output to the VRG to adjust the respiratory rhythm?

C

This center bears the primary responsibility for generating the respiratory rhythm, but is influenced by several other centers.

D

Emotional states are integrated by ___, which generates an output that creates such respiratory variations as laughing and crying.

B

The pH of the cerebrospinal fluid is monitored by which of these brainstem centers?

E

____ states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its individual gases.
A. Boyle's law
B. Valsalva's law
C. Dalton's law
D. Charles's law
E. Henry's law

C. Dalton's law

In a healthy person, which of the following will have the greatest influence on resistance to pulmonary airflow?
A. atmospheric pressure
B. respiratory rate
C. bronchiole diameter
D. quantity of surfactant
E. the diaphragm

C. bronchiole diameter

The amount of air in excess of tidal volume that can be inhaled with maximum effort is called
A. vital capacity.
B. inspiratory reserve volume.
C. expiratory reserve volume.
D. residual volume.
E. inspiratory capacity.

B. inspiratory reserve volume.

Vital capacity consists of
A. inspiratory reserve volume + expiratory volume.
B. inspiratory reserve volume + tidal volume. C. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume. D. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.
E. respiratory volume + tidal volume.

D. expiratory reserve volume + tidal volume + inspiratory reserve volume.

Deep, rapid breathing often seen in terminal diabetes mellitus is known as what?
A. tachypnea
B. dyspnea
C. orthopnea
D. hyperpnea
E. Kussmaul respiration

E. Kussmaul respiration

Carbon dioxide is transported by all the following means except
A. carbaminohemoglobin.
B. carbonic acid.
C. carbonate.
D. bicarbonate ions.
E. dissolved gas.

C. carbonate.

Tom is in respiratory arrest due to an electrical shock. Why does a Good Samaritan have up to 4 or 5 minutes to begin CPR and save Tom's life?
A. reserve oxygen in Tom's lungs
B. a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood C. the ambient Po2 can support life that long D. the Haldane effect lasts up to 5 minutes
E. Tom's hypoxic drive will keep him alive for up to 5 minutes

B. a venous reserve of oxygen in Tom's blood

During exercise, which of the following directly increases respiratory rate?
A. increased H+ level in the blood
B. the Bohr effect
C. reduced blood pH
D. reduced oxyhemoglobin
E. anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

E. anticipation of the needs of exercising muscle

Which of the following would slow down gas exchange between the blood and alveolar air?
A. an increase in membrane thickness
B. an increase in alveolar surface area
C. an increase in respiratory rate
D. a decrease in membrane thickness
E. a decrease in nitrogen solubility

A. an increase in membrane thickness

The addition of CO2 to the blood generates ___ ions in the RBCs, which in turn stimulates RBCs to unload more oxygen.
A. sodium
B. potassium
C. nitrogen
D. hydrogen
E. chloride

D. hydrogen

Which of the following has no effect on oxyhemoglobin dissociation?
A. epinephrine
B. fever
C. thyroid hormone
D. low pH
E. erythrocyte count

E. erythrocyte count

Which has the highest concentration in the air we breathe?
A. oxygen
B. water vapor
C. nitrogen
D. carbon dioxide
E. hydrogen

C. nitrogen

Each hemoglobin molecule can transport up to _____ oxygen molecules.
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

D. 4

Normally the systemic arterial blood has a Po2 of _____ mm Hg, a Pco2 of _____ mm Hg, and a pH of _____.
A. 40; 95; 7.4
B. 95; 40; 7.4
C. 7.4; 40; 95
D. 95; 7.4; 40
E. 40; 7.4; 95

B. 95; 40; 7.4

Which of the following enzymes in an RBC breaks H2CO3 down to water and carbon dioxide?
A. hemoglobin
B. carboxyhemoglobin
C. carbonic anhydrase
D. bisphosphoglycerate E. carbaminoreductase

C. carbonic anhydrase

In one passage through a bed of systemic blood capillaries, the blood gives up about what percentage of its oxygen?
A. 5% to 10%
B. 10% to 15%
C. 20% to 25%
D. 30% to 40%
E. 70% to 85%

C. 20% to 25%

Which of the following is the term for a deficiency of oxygen or the inability to utilize oxygen in a tissue?
A. apoxia
B. hypoxia
C. anoxia
D. cyanosis
E. eupnea

B. hypoxia

Congestive heart failure results in which of the following?
A. hypoxemic hypoxia
B. ischemic hypoxia
C. anemic hypoxia
D. histotoxic hypoxia
E. idiopathic hypoxia

B. ischemic hypoxia

___ is a lung disease marked by a reduced number of cilia, reduced motility of the remaining cilia, goblet cell hypertrophy and hypersecretion, and thick sputum.
A. Asthma
B. Oat-cell carcinoma
C. Atelectasis
D. Chronic bronchitis
E. Emphysema

D. Chronic bronchitis

Which of the following would lead to anemic hypoxia?
A. sickle-cell disease
B. emphysema
C. squamous-cell carcinoma
D. asthma
E. atelectasis

A. sickle-cell disease

A lung disease marked by abnormally few but large alveoli is
A. cor pulmonale.
B. pulmonary hemosiderosis.
C. emphysema.
D. atelectasis.
E. collapsed lung.

C. emphysema.

In ___, the lungs are infected with Mycobacterium and produce fibrous nodules around the bacteria, leading to progressive pulmonary fibrosis.
A. pneumonia
B. dyspnea
C. pneumothorax
D. tuberculosis
E. rhinitis

D. tuberculosis

Which malignancy originates in the lamina propria of the bronchi?
A. squamous-cell carcinoma
B. oat-cell carcinoma
C. adenocarcinoma
D. pulmonary edema
E. cor pulmonale

C. adenocarcinoma

Polio can sometimes damage the brainstem respiratory centers and result in
A. a Bohr effect.
B. adult respiratory distress syndrome.
C. pneumothorax.
D. atelectasis.
E. Ondine's curse.

E. Ondine's curse.

Which of these is most likely to result from contact between contaminated fingers and the nasal mucosa?
A. apnea
B. adult respiratory distress syndrome
C. acute bronchitis
D. acute rhinitis
E. asthma

D. acute rhinitis

Scuba divers breathe a nitrogen-oxygen mixture rather than pure compressed oxygen in order to avoid
A. the bends.
B. oxygen toxicity.
C. rapture of the deep.
D. caisson disease.
E. hypoxemic hypoxia.

B. oxygen toxicity.

Nitrogen bubbles can form in the blood and other tissues when a scuba diver ascends too rapidly, producing a syndrome called
A. decompression sickness.
B. hyperbaric disease.
C. cerebral embolism.
D. pulmonary barotrauma.
E. pulmonary edema.

C. cerebral embolism.

The vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves carry afferent signals from peripheral chemoreceptors to a chemosensitive area in
A. the pontine respiratory group.
B. the dorsal respiratory group.
C. the ventral respiratory group.
D. the medulla oblongata.
E. the pons.

D. the medulla oblongata.

Mucus plays an important role in cleansing inhaled air. It is produced by ___ of the respiratory tract.
A. squamous alveolar cells
B. great alveolar cells
C. the pleurae
D. ciliated cells
E. goblet cells

E. goblet cells

The blood transports more CO2 in the form of ___ than in any other form.
A. carbaminohemoglobin
B. carboxyhemoglobin
C. bicarbonate ions
D. dissolved CO2 gas
E. bisphosphocarbonate

C. bicarbonate ions

Among its other purposes, the Valsalva maneuver is used
A. to aid in defecation and urination.
B. as part of the procedure for giving CPR to a person in respiratory arrest.
C. to ventilate the lungs during eupnea.
D. to expel more than the usual tidal volume from the lungs.
E. to clear carbon monoxide from the body and replace it with oxygen.

A. to aid in defecation and urination.

Blood banks dispose of blood that has low levels of bisphosphoglycerate. What would be the probable reason for doing so?
A. A low BPG level causes acidosis of blood.
B. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload CO2 very well.
C. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.
D. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not load O2 very well.
E. A decline in BPG level is accompanied by a decline in hemoglobin level.

C. Erythrocytes low in BPG do not unload O2 very well.

Your breathing rate is 12 breaths/minute; your tidal volume is 500 mL; your vital capacity is 4700 mL; and your dead air space is 150 mL. Your alveolar ventilation rate is _____ mL/min.
A. 2,400
B. 3,600
C. 4,200
D. 5,600
E. 6,400

C. 4,200

Your breathing rate is 14 breaths/minute; spirometric measurements reveal your tidal volume is 500 mL; your inspiratory reserve volume is 3000 mL; and your expiratory reserve volume is 1,200 mL. Your vital capacity is ______ mL.
A. 2,400
B. 3,000
C. 3,800
D. 4,700
E. 5,800

D. 4,700

The maximum amount of air the lungs can contain is known as inspiratory capacity.
True False

FALSE

Respiratory arrest is an irreversible condition.
True False

FALSE

The pleurae and pleural fluid help prevent the spread of pulmonary infection to the pericardium.
True False

TRUE

Breathing is controlled solely by the medulla oblongata and pons.
True False

FALSE

The rate of oxygen diffusion is affected by the pressure gradient of carbon dioxide.
True False

FALSE

Gas transport is the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa.
True False

TRUE

Carbon monoxide competes with oxygen for the same binding site.
True False

TRUE

According to the Bohr effect, a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more CO2.
True False

FALSE

Erythrocytes do not carry out aerobic respiration; thus, they do not consume any of the oxygen they are transporting.
True False

TRUE

Hemoglobin releases the same amount of oxygen to all the tissues regardless of variations in their metabolic rate.
True False

FALSE

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