believed that national, historic, and religious traditions are the essential foundations of any society. Maintained that all change should be gradual. Appealed to those who were frightened by the social disorder, violence, and terror fomented by the French Revolution
began in Great Britain in the late 18th century. Strengthened the size and significance of business leaders, merchants, and the middle class. Created a new class of urban workers.
believed in natural rights that governments must protect. Supported civil liberties including freedom from arbitrary arrest and imprisonment and guarantees for freedom of speech, the press, assembly, and religion.
admired the British system of constitutional monarchy, favored representative government, opposed full democracy, advocated economic individualism and opposed government intervention in the economy. Expressed little concern for the plight of urban workers.
believed that an nation consists of a group of people who share similar traditions, history, and language. Argued that every nation should be sovereign and include all members of a nationality. Insisted that a person's greatest loyalty should be to a nation-state. Stirred powerful forces for change.
Austria foreign minister and host for the Congress of Vienna. Committed to the principles of conservatism. Viewed liberalism and nationalism as threats to European stability and the survival of the Austria Empire.
meant restoring ruling families that had been deposed by the French Revolution and Napoleon. Louis XVIII returned as the legitimate bourbon ruler of France
forced to return to its 1790 borders and to pay an indemnity of 700 million francs. However they were allowed to keep most of its overseas possessions, its army, and an independent government.
Congress of Vienna
Outcomes- Austrian Netherlands was united with the Dutch Republic to form a single kingdom of the Netherlands. A group of 39 German states were loosely joined into a newly created German Confederation, dominated by Austria. They recognized Switzerland as an independent and neutral nation. The kingdom of Sardinia in Italy was strengthened by the addition of Piedmont and Savoy
acquired the northern Italian provinces of Lombardy and venetia as compensation for its loss of Belgium
gained valuable territories for its overseas empire, including Malta, the Cape of Good Hope, trinidad, and Tobago
Congress of Vienna
enacted a settlement that was acceptable to both the victors and to France. It created a balance of power that lasted until the unification of Germany in 1871. It underestimated the forces of liberalism and nationalism unleashed by the French Revolution
England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia- committed to preserve the conservative order
Metternich- these decrees dissolved the student associations, censored books and newspapers, and used secret police to harass dissidents
Russia- When Tsar Alexander I died in December 1825, a group of army officers rebelled, calling for constitutional reform. His successor, Nicholas I ruthlessly suppressed the Decembrists. Russia became Europe's most powerful reactionary stronghold.
rejected reason and instead stressed emotion, intuition and subjective feelings. they looked to the medieval period for models of chivalrous heroes, miraculous events, and unsolved mysteries. They preferred to contemplate the beauty of nature. They were inspired by raging rivers, great storms, and majestic mountains veiled in mist.
artist liberty leading the people- this tribute to liberty portrayed a unified people dedicated to overthrowing tyranny. The unity proved to be brief. While the workers wanted a republic, the bourgeoisie wanted a constitutional monarchy.
revolt against Ottoman Empire began in 1821. This revolt succeeded because of the support of Great Britain, France, and Russia. These nations all wanted to expand their influence in the Balkans.
1832- created a number of new districts representing heavily urban areas. It also doubled the number of voters to include most middle class men. Only about 1/5 adult males could vote
placed a high tariff on imported corn, wheat, and other grains. The tariff benefitted large landowners by providing them with a protected market for their crops.
Anti Corn Law League
advocated a free trade policy that would lower the price of food and increase the profits of industry.
repealed in 1846. This marked a victory for Britain's urban population and for the proponents of free trade.
1838- working class leaders- demanded universal manhood suffrage, a secret ballot, equal electoral districts, and the abolition of property requirements for membership in the House of Commons. Parliament refused to consider their proposals. They would ultimately be adopted though.
dedicated reactionary- vigrously opposed republicanism, liberalism, and constitutionalism. His reactionary policies infuriated both his liberal and working class opponents.
Duke of Orleans- became "king of the French" he prided himself on being a "citizen king" who supported France's business interests
secret society formed by Italian nationalists. They hoped to drive out the Austrians and unify Italy.
a leading minster rejected demands for extending the franchise to the working class by proclaiming "enrich yourself and you will have the vote." His government collapsed in Feb 1848.
French voters overwhelmingly elected _____ _______as President of the Second French Republic. He promised to restore order at home and glory abroad.
led by Mazzini- a movement that sought to establish a liberal republic embracing all Italy. Austrians proved to be too strong while the Italians proved to be divided.
1834- a free trading union to facilitate commerce- all the major German states except Austria
called a Prussian assembly then dissolved it. He rejected the Frankfurt assembly's plan for a constitutional monarchy declaring that he would refuse to pick up a crown from the gutter.
a huge dynastic state in which a dominant German speaking nation ruled a large number of subject nationalities and ethnic groups. The government regained control. Francis Joseph accepted the offer of Tsar Nicholas I to help defeat the Hungarians.