5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- class I vs class II drugs
- sublingual and rectal administration
- very hydrophobic drugs
- parenteral administration (a. IV, b. subcutaneous, c. intramuscular, d. intraarterial, e. intrathecal)
- a (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
- b clas I: drugs where the dose is less than albumin's capacity to bind (when administered, there will be excess albumin for further binding). class II:given in doses much greater than albumin's ability to bind to it (means there is much more of the drug left over, causing lots of the drug to be free and not to be bound to albumin). if you combine a class I with a class II, free drugs levels of Class I will be much higher, potentially dangerous and may cause overdose situation. Free drugs are active, bound drugs are inert)
- c can easily get out of blood stream
- d describes action of drugs wihtin body and absorption, [How drugs move in body and how quickly] distrib, metabolism and elimination of drugs in addition to the rate or kinetics at which drug's actions begin and their duration. "ADD ME" (sp?) scheme
- e a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
5 Multiple choice questions
- administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
- minimum trough concentration
- 2/3 in intracellular compartment and 1/3 in extracellular compartment (between cells). Drugs can distrib into any of these compartments dep on size and hydrophobicity of drug. (V(d)=Total amt of drug in body/plasma concentration of drug-->Know: small V(d) indicates drug is primarily sequestered in plasma, a Large V(d) indicates that relatively little of the drug stays in plasma (if mroe than one, more disrib in body and less in bloodstream if less than one, less in body and more in bloodstream, if 1-equal)
- brain, liver, kidneys have excellent blood flow, skeletal muscles and skin less, adipose tissues even less.
- absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
5 True/False questions
Good whole food vitamin → New process
t 1/2 → time for drug concentration to fall by half
active transport → physiochemical makeup helps determine how easy or difficult drug passes thru membranes (concentration gradient, how lipophilic and surface area of cell)
charge of drug → absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
distribution. → the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins