5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- ADME scheme
- sublingual and rectal administration
- Volume of distribution
- charge of drug
- a absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
- b determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
- c (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
- d 2/3 in intracellular compartment and 1/3 in extracellular compartment (between cells). Drugs can distrib into any of these compartments dep on size and hydrophobicity of drug. (V(d)=Total amt of drug in body/plasma concentration of drug-->Know: small V(d) indicates drug is primarily sequestered in plasma, a Large V(d) indicates that relatively little of the drug stays in plasma (if mroe than one, more disrib in body and less in bloodstream if less than one, less in body and more in bloodstream, if 1-equal)
- e looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
5 Multiple choice questions
- minimum trough concentration
- can easily get out of blood stream
- atp required. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
- a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
- no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
5 True/False questions
Enteral administration. a. enteric coated pills, b.controlled release pills → administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
t 1/2 → time for drug concentration to fall by half
AUC → maximum concentration:
degree of blood flow in brain/liver/kidneys, skeletal muscles and skin, adipose tissues → brain, liver, kidneys have excellent blood flow, skeletal muscles and skin less, adipose tissues even less.
Factors that affect bioavailability → a. first pass hepatic metabolism: first pass metabolism refers to drugs entering hepatic portal system from intestines, b. drug solubility: very hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs have difficulty crossing cell membranes and entering most drugs prefer to be hydrophobic and a little hydrophilic so they can pass cell membranes easily., c. chemical instability: some drugs may be affected by stomach's pH or various degradative enzymes in GI tract., d. chemicophysical properties of the drug(suzem salt form)