5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- sublingual and rectal administration
- Good whole food vitamin
- very hydrophobic drugs
- cons of oral/enteral administration
- a New process
- b can easily get out of blood stream
- c reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
- d (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
- e area under the curve: overall exposure to drug over time.
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
- a)enteric coated allows drug to pass thru stomach without being destroyed by gastric acid. b)controlled release preparation allows drug to release a uniform stream to absorption site over relatively long period of time (disadvantages of this include differences between patients, failure of controlled release causing dose dumping or reduced drug release)other forms of enteral administration
- a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
- minimum trough concentration
- 2/3 in intracellular compartment and 1/3 in extracellular compartment (between cells). Drugs can distrib into any of these compartments dep on size and hydrophobicity of drug. (V(d)=Total amt of drug in body/plasma concentration of drug-->Know: small V(d) indicates drug is primarily sequestered in plasma, a Large V(d) indicates that relatively little of the drug stays in plasma (if mroe than one, more disrib in body and less in bloodstream if less than one, less in body and more in bloodstream, if 1-equal)
5 True/False Questions
administration of drugs → administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
t 1/2 → time for drug concentration to fall by half
absorption → rate and extent that the drugs leaves site of administration. a)how long it takes for an oral drug to enter bloodstream from small intestine and how much of the drug makes it. b. bioavailability: [how much of a drug makes it into the bloodstream] what fraction of the dose of a drug reaches its site of actino or a body fluid where the drug has accss to its action.
Factors that affect bioavailability → a. first pass hepatic metabolism: first pass metabolism refers to drugs entering hepatic portal system from intestines, b. drug solubility: very hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs have difficulty crossing cell membranes and entering most drugs prefer to be hydrophobic and a little hydrophilic so they can pass cell membranes easily., c. chemical instability: some drugs may be affected by stomach's pH or various degradative enzymes in GI tract., d. chemicophysical properties of the drug(suzem salt form)
charge of drug → absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.