5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- Volume of distribution
- active transport
- Factors that affect bioavailability
- a 2/3 in intracellular compartment and 1/3 in extracellular compartment (between cells). Drugs can distrib into any of these compartments dep on size and hydrophobicity of drug. (V(d)=Total amt of drug in body/plasma concentration of drug-->Know: small V(d) indicates drug is primarily sequestered in plasma, a Large V(d) indicates that relatively little of the drug stays in plasma (if mroe than one, more disrib in body and less in bloodstream if less than one, less in body and more in bloodstream, if 1-equal)
- b looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
- c a. first pass hepatic metabolism: first pass metabolism refers to drugs entering hepatic portal system from intestines, b. drug solubility: very hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs have difficulty crossing cell membranes and entering most drugs prefer to be hydrophobic and a little hydrophilic so they can pass cell membranes easily., c. chemical instability: some drugs may be affected by stomach's pH or various degradative enzymes in GI tract., d. chemicophysical properties of the drug(suzem salt form)
- d maximum concentration:
- e atp required. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
- a)enteric coated allows drug to pass thru stomach without being destroyed by gastric acid. b)controlled release preparation allows drug to release a uniform stream to absorption site over relatively long period of time (disadvantages of this include differences between patients, failure of controlled release causing dose dumping or reduced drug release)other forms of enteral administration
- area under the curve: overall exposure to drug over time.
- administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
- absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
5 True/False Questions
very hydrophobic drugs → determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
protein binding → the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins
facilitated diffusion → no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
pharmacokinetics → looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
sublingual and rectal administration → (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)