5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- degree of blood flow in brain/liver/kidneys, skeletal muscles and skin, adipose tissues
- passive diffusion
- class I vs class II drugs
- parenteral administration (a. IV, b. subcutaneous, c. intramuscular, d. intraarterial, e. intrathecal)
- t 1/2
- a physiochemical makeup helps determine how easy or difficult drug passes thru membranes (concentration gradient, how lipophilic and surface area of cell)
- b clas I: drugs where the dose is less than albumin's capacity to bind (when administered, there will be excess albumin for further binding). class II:given in doses much greater than albumin's ability to bind to it (means there is much more of the drug left over, causing lots of the drug to be free and not to be bound to albumin). if you combine a class I with a class II, free drugs levels of Class I will be much higher, potentially dangerous and may cause overdose situation. Free drugs are active, bound drugs are inert)
- c a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
- d time for drug concentration to fall by half
- e brain, liver, kidneys have excellent blood flow, skeletal muscles and skin less, adipose tissues even less.
5 Multiple choice questions
- minimum trough concentration
- area under the curve: overall exposure to drug over time.
- reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
- rate and extent that the drugs leaves site of administration. a)how long it takes for an oral drug to enter bloodstream from small intestine and how much of the drug makes it. b. bioavailability: [how much of a drug makes it into the bloodstream] what fraction of the dose of a drug reaches its site of actino or a body fluid where the drug has accss to its action.
- determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
5 True/False questions
administration of drugs → determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
pharmacodynamics → looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
Factors that affect bioavailability → no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
Cmax → minimum trough concentration
protein binding → the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins