5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- C min
- administration of drugs
- t 1/2
- active transport
- parenteral administration (a. IV, b. subcutaneous, c. intramuscular, d. intraarterial, e. intrathecal)
- a minimum trough concentration
- b administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
- c time for drug concentration to fall by half
- d atp required. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
- e a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
5 Multiple choice questions
- 2/3 in intracellular compartment and 1/3 in extracellular compartment (between cells). Drugs can distrib into any of these compartments dep on size and hydrophobicity of drug. (V(d)=Total amt of drug in body/plasma concentration of drug-->Know: small V(d) indicates drug is primarily sequestered in plasma, a Large V(d) indicates that relatively little of the drug stays in plasma (if mroe than one, more disrib in body and less in bloodstream if less than one, less in body and more in bloodstream, if 1-equal)
- clas I: drugs where the dose is less than albumin's capacity to bind (when administered, there will be excess albumin for further binding). class II:given in doses much greater than albumin's ability to bind to it (means there is much more of the drug left over, causing lots of the drug to be free and not to be bound to albumin). if you combine a class I with a class II, free drugs levels of Class I will be much higher, potentially dangerous and may cause overdose situation. Free drugs are active, bound drugs are inert)
- area under the curve: overall exposure to drug over time.
- maximum concentration:
- a)enteric coated allows drug to pass thru stomach without being destroyed by gastric acid. b)controlled release preparation allows drug to release a uniform stream to absorption site over relatively long period of time (disadvantages of this include differences between patients, failure of controlled release causing dose dumping or reduced drug release)other forms of enteral administration
5 True/False questions
sublingual and rectal administration → (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
distribution. → the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins
passive diffusion → no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
pharmacodynamics → looks at how drugs act in the body and deals with [At the site of action, what the drug does] mechanisms of action in addition to the actions of different drug concentrations or doses
cons of oral/enteral administration → reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues