5 Written questions
5 Matching questions
- very hydrophobic drugs
- administration of drugs
- active transport
- protein binding
- parenteral administration (a. IV, b. subcutaneous, c. intramuscular, d. intraarterial, e. intrathecal)
- a can easily get out of blood stream
- b a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
- c atp required. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
- d administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
- e most drugs reversibly bind to plasma proteins. drugs bound to albumin is going to be inactive. albumin is the most common protein in the plasma, albumin keeps blood within the blood vessels. As plasma concentration of the drug increases, more binding occurs.
5 Multiple choice questions
- (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
- the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins
- clas I: drugs where the dose is less than albumin's capacity to bind (when administered, there will be excess albumin for further binding). class II:given in doses much greater than albumin's ability to bind to it (means there is much more of the drug left over, causing lots of the drug to be free and not to be bound to albumin). if you combine a class I with a class II, free drugs levels of Class I will be much higher, potentially dangerous and may cause overdose situation. Free drugs are active, bound drugs are inert)
- New process
- determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
5 True/False questions
degree of blood flow in brain/liver/kidneys, skeletal muscles and skin, adipose tissues → brain, liver, kidneys have excellent blood flow, skeletal muscles and skin less, adipose tissues even less.
passive diffusion → physiochemical makeup helps determine how easy or difficult drug passes thru membranes (concentration gradient, how lipophilic and surface area of cell)
Factors that affect bioavailability → no atp. carrier protein assists drug in entering cell
cons of oral/enteral administration → reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
ADME scheme → absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.