5 Written Questions
5 Matching Questions
- parenteral administration (a. IV, b. subcutaneous, c. intramuscular, d. intraarterial, e. intrathecal)
- passive diffusion
- t 1/2
- degree of blood flow in brain/liver/kidneys, skeletal muscles and skin, adipose tissues
- a brain, liver, kidneys have excellent blood flow, skeletal muscles and skin less, adipose tissues even less.
- b the prcoess thru which the drug leaves the bloods tream and enters interstitium (absorption is about intestines, distrib is about bloodstream). 4 aspects: blood flow, capillary permeability, drug structure, degree of binding to proteins
- c a. intravenous: aqueous solution injected into a vein, b. subcutaneous: inject below skin in subc tissues, c. intramuscular into muscles, d. intraarterial: rare b/c makes bleed a ton, e. intrathecal: inject into cerebrospinal fluid of spinal subarachnoid space. OVERALL: parenteral have many advantages over oral admin including more rapid extensive and predictable admin, can be given to unconscious patients. disadvantages include necessity for aseptic protocols/pain/difficult self-med.
- d physiochemical makeup helps determine how easy or difficult drug passes thru membranes (concentration gradient, how lipophilic and surface area of cell)
- e time for drug concentration to fall by half
5 Multiple Choice Questions
- can easily get out of blood stream
- (sublingual allows drug to bypass intestines and liver preventing first pass metabolism), rectal(only 50 % of drug enters the liver and is metabolism. disadvantages include irregular and incomplete absorption and irritation of the rectal mucosa)
- absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination.
- reduced drug absorption, emesis due to gastrointestinal irritation, destruction of some of drug thru enzymatic degradation and gastric acid, inconsisten absorption, and patient compliance issues
- most drugs reversibly bind to plasma proteins. drugs bound to albumin is going to be inactive. albumin is the most common protein in the plasma, albumin keeps blood within the blood vessels. As plasma concentration of the drug increases, more binding occurs.
5 True/False Questions
other routes of admin → determine how readily crosses membrane. uncharged chemicals more easily pass membranes. weak acids and bases can be charged or uncharged, but each drug's charge changes based on interaction with body's pH
Enteral administration. a. enteric coated pills, b.controlled release pills → a)enteric coated allows drug to pass thru stomach without being destroyed by gastric acid. b)controlled release preparation allows drug to release a uniform stream to absorption site over relatively long period of time (disadvantages of this include differences between patients, failure of controlled release causing dose dumping or reduced drug release)other forms of enteral administration
class I vs class II drugs → administration routes of drugs play large role in drug absorption, 2 major mehtods: a) enteral means thru gastroint tract. b)parenteral: entrance outside of GI tract, usually via injection.
Good whole food vitamin → New process
C min → maximum concentration: