General Psychology Final Review

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exaggerate their ability to have foreseen an outcome.

The hindsight bias refers to people's tendency to

overconfidence.

Our tendency to believe we know more than we do illustrates

informal consent.

The tendency to perceive order in random events often leads to overestimating the value of

a random outcome.

The fact that the same individual won the New Jersey lottery on two separate occasions best illustrates

empirical approach.

By testing their predictions with the observational method of science, psychologists are using a(n)

certainty, creativity, and curiosity.

Three key attitudes of scientific inquiry are

testable prediction that gives direction to research.

A hypothesis is a(n)

operational definition.

A statement describing the exact procedures for measuring an anticipated experimental outcome is known as a(n)

replication

Which technique involves repeating the essence of an earlier research study with different participants and in different circumstances?

a single individual is studied in great depth.

The case study is a research method in which

the participants are representative of the population they are interested in studying.

In a survey, psychologists select a random sample of research participants in order to ensure that

correlation coefficient

Which of the following is a statistical measure of both the direction and the strength of a relationship between two variables?

intelligence and academic success.

A researcher would be most likely to discover a positive correlation between

-0.12

Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the weakest degree of relationship between two variables?

causes from effects.

Researchers use experiments rather than other research methods in order to isolate

random assignment.

To accurately isolate cause and effect, experimenters should use

the double-blind procedure.

Both the researchers and the participants in a memory study are ignorant about which participants have actually received a potentially memory-enhancing drug and which have received a placebo. This investigation involves the use of

placebo.

In a study of the effects of drinking alcohol, some participants drank a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a

correlational

To study the potential effects of social interaction on problem solving, some research participants were instructed to solve problems by working together; other participants were told to solve problems by working alone. Those who worked alone were assigned to the ________ group.

independent variable.

In an experimental study, men with erectile dysfunction received either Viagra or a placebo. In this study, the drug dosage (none versus peak dose) was the

confounding variable.

A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment is called a

dependent

In a psychological experiment, the factor that may be influenced by the manipulated experimental treatment is called the ________ variable.

consider whether it is distorted by a few extreme cases.

When a statistical average is reported in the news, it is most important for readers to

ethics of placing the well-being of humans above that of animals.

The first major issue that emerges in debates over experimenting on animals centers around the

informed consent.

Potential research participants are told enough about an upcoming study to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate. This illustrates the practice of seeking

debriefing.

After an experiment, research participants are told its purpose and about any deception they may have experienced. This is called

can bias their observations and interpretations.

Psychologists' personal values and goals can do what?

deceive participants about the true purpose of an experiment.

In an effort to prevent participants in an experiment from trying to confirm the researchers' predictions, psychologists sometimes

may be unrepresentative of what is generally true.

The biggest danger of relying on case-study evidence is that it

naturalistic observation.

Psychologists who carefully watch the behavior of chimpanzee societies in the jungle are using a research method known as

biological

A focus on the links between brain activity and behavior is most characteristic of psychologists who work from a ________ perspective.

agonist.

A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter is called a(n)

peripheral

The two major divisions of the nervous system are the central and the ________ nervous systems.

the brain and the spinal cord.

The central nervous system consists of

cerebellum.

The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the

spinal cord.

The part of the central nervous system that carries information from your senses to your brain and motor-control information to your body parts is the

reflex.

A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)

the fight-or-flight response.

The release of hormones by the adrenal glands is most likely to trigger

pituitary gland.

The master gland of the endocrine system is the

autonomic nervous system.

Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the

the sympathetic nervous system

Which division of the autonomic nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in stressful situations?

limbic system.

The amygdala consists of emotion-linked neural clusters in the

temporal

Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ________ lobes.

seeing; hearing

The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.

frontal

The motor cortex is located in the ________ lobes.

plasticity

The capacity of a brain area to reorganize in response to damage is known as brain

our awareness of ourselves and our environment.

Consciousness is

selective attention.

Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus is called

selective attention.

While reading a novel, Raoul isn't easily distracted by the sounds of the TV or even by his brothers' loud arguments. This best illustrates

a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour cycle.

Circadian rhythm refers to

REM sleep.

Fast and jerky movements of the eyes are especially likely to be associated with

would report a vivid dream if he were awakened during REM sleep.

Forty-year-old Lance insists that he never dreams. Research suggests that he probably

90 minutes.

The human sleep cycle repeats itself about every

accommodation.

Nageeb thought all nurses were young females until a middle-aged male nurse took care of him. Nageeb's altered conception of a "nurse" illustrates the process of

a product of parenting style.

A child's temperament is likely to be

alcohol.

One of the most consistently damaging teratogens is

assimilation; accommodation

Incorporating new information into existing theories is to ________ as modifying existing theories in light of new information is to ________.

sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

Which of the following represents the correct order of Piaget's stages of cognitive development?

fertilized egg that undergoes rapid cell division.

A teratogen is a(n)

things continue to exist even when they are not perceived.

Object permanence is the understanding that

the difficulty perceiving things from another person's point of view.

According to Piaget, egocentrism refers to

brain abnormalities.

The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome are most likely to include

insomnia

A recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep is called

genes

The biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes are called

set of interactions between genes and environments.

The genome is the complete

religious beliefs; personality traits

The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their ________.

temperament.

The labels "easy," "difficult," and "slow-to-warm-up" are used to refer to differences in an infant's

stable over time.

A child's temperament is likely to be

mutation.

A random error in gene replication is known as a

has sudden uncontrollable seizures.

Narcolepsy is a disorder in which a person

narcolepsy

In which of the following disorders does the person repeatedly stop breathing while asleep?

heightened openness to suggestion.

Hypnosis involves a state of

dual processing.

The simultaneous processing of information at both conscious and unconscious levels is called

authoritative

Parents who are demanding and yet sensitively responsive to their children are said to be

preconventional

According to Kohlberg, morality based on the avoidance of punishment and the attainment of concrete rewards represents ________ morality.

adolescent

According to Erikson, achieving a sense of identity is the special task of the

information-processing speed.

Most 20-year-olds outperform most 70-year-olds on video games due to age-related differences in

egocentrism

Four-year-old Jennifer mistakenly believes that her mother would like to receive a toy doll as a Christmas present. This best illustrates Piaget's concept of

learning associations.

Conditioning is the process of

classical conditioning.

Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

observational learning.

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

higher-order conditioning.

Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates

chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.

A Skinner box is a(n)

storage

The retention of encoded information over time refers to

retrieval.

The process of getting information out of memory is called

automatic processing.

We encode implicit memories by means of

the organization of information into meaningful units.

Chunking refers to

memory aid.

A mnemonic is a

long-term memory

Which type of memory has an essentially limitless capacity?

recall

When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which measure of memory is being used?

recognition

Which measure of memory is used on a test that requires matching glossary terms with their correct definitions?

relearning

Which measure of memory retention assesses the amount of time saved when learning material again?

repression

When Tony is in a bad mood, he interprets his parents' comments as criticisms. When he's in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parental comments as helpful suggestions. This best illustrates that our emotional states influence the process of

reinforcement.

An event that strengthens the behavior it follows is a(n)

shaping

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of

positive reinforcer.

Any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a(n)

cognitive map.

After a week at college, Su-Chuan has formed a mental representation of the layout of the campus and no longer gets lost. Su-Chuan has developed a

dual processing.

Although we may be unaware of our gender prejudices, they often influence the way we consciously perceive males and females. This best illustrates

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