Criminal Justice Final

137 terms by ckraeger11 

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What common-law practice allowed judges to suspend punishment so that convicted offenders could seek a pardon, gather new evidence, or demonstrate that they had reformed their behavior?

Judicial Reprieve

Probation sentence involve;

A contract between the court and the offender in which a prison or jail term is suspended and the probationer promises to obey a set of probation rules, or conditions mandate by the court

What modern concept is attributed to the 19th century volunteer work of John Augustus?

Probation

For misdemeanors, probation usually extends for the entire period of a would-be jail sentence, whereas felonies are more likely to warrant probationary periods that are ________________ the suspended prison sentence.

Shorter

What entity initially sets down the conditions or rules of behavior that must be followed by the probationer?

The court

Which state was the first to authorize the appointment of a paid probation officer?

Massachusetts

____ refers to the process in which a probation officer settles cases at the initial appearance before the onset of formal criminal proceedings

Intake

The ____ is conducted primarily to gain information for judicial sentences.

Pre-sentence investigation

What happen when probation is revoked?

You are sent to jail to serve the remainder of your sentence behind bars

Which duty involves evaluating the probationer based on information from the initial intake or presentence investigation?

Diagnosis

Which of the following is not a landmark Supreme Court case that deals with the legal rights of probationers?

Morrisey v. Brewer

In ____, the Court ruled that the probation officer/client relationship is not confidential.

Minnesota v. Murphy

In ____, the Supreme Court held that a probationer's home may be searched without a warrant on the grounds that probation departments "must respond quickly to evidence of misconduct. "

Griffin v. Wisconsin

This therapy assumes that most people can become conscious of their own thoughts and behaviors and then make positive changes.

Cognitive Behavior Therapy?

National data indicate that approximately ____ percent of probationers successfully complete their probationary sentence

60%

Which of the following individuals is most likely to succeed on probation?

Probationers who are married with children, have lived in the area for two or more years, and are adequately employed are the most likely to be successful

Many scholars argue that probation will continue to be the sentence of choice in both felony and misdemeanor cases because it:

Controls for recidivism better than other intermediate sanctions

Which of the following is not a form of intermediate sanction?

Forms:
- intensive probation
-super vision
-house arrest
- residential community
-split sentence

- Punishments that fall between probation and prision

What is the least punitive alternative on the punishment ladder?

Fine, restorative,

far from death sentence

What is the most punitive alternative on the punishment ladder?

Death penalty

What type of fine is geared to the offender's net daily income?

Day fines

What did the Court rule in Tate v. Short?

Forcing prison time on those unable to pay fines is unconstitutional

Which of the following is considered to be a federal forfeiture program?

The RICO act

What is the term associated with the strict interpretation of forfeiture statutes that produces property confiscations for even minor drug violations?

Zero Tolerance

Community service is an example of what?

Restitution

Resentencing an offender t probation after a short prison stay is termed:

shock probation

Which intermediate sanction makes a jail term a condition of probation?

Split sentencing

Which of the following is the primary goal of Intensive Probation Services (IPS)?

Reintegration

According to the basic principles of restorative justice, the first priority of the justice process is to:

restoring the damage caused by crime and creating a system of justice that includes all the parties harmed by the criminal act: the victim the offender, community and society

John Braithwaite argues that crime control can be better achieved through a policy of:

Reintegrative shaming

When did the concept of incarcerating convicted offenders as a form of punishment become the norm for corrections?

The 19th century

Where were the English forced to house large numbers of prisoners in the late eighteenth century?

prison hulks

The "modern" American correctional system had its origin in what state?

Pennsylvania

What group formed the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons?

A group of Quakers led by Benjamin Rush

The Pennsylvania system in corrections, was the first to take the radical step of what?:

Establishing a prison that placed each inmate in a single cell for the duration of his sentence

Which prison system was known as the congregate system?

The Auburn

What was the key to discipline in the Auburn system?

Silent confinement

What is the name for the system that allowed prison officials to sell the labor of inmates to private businesses?

Contract system

The "modern" American correctional concept has its origin under the leadership of?

...

The major similarity between the Pennsylvania and the Auburn system was?

Discipline: silence and harsh punishment

Which of the following is not one of the five primary purposes for jails?

Holding excessive medical patients when mental hospitals are full

Which of the following statements is false regarding the population of jail inmates according to the text?

...

An important trend in prisons of the twentieth century was the

...

Almost ________jail inmates are adult males.

9/10

Which of the following is false regarding new-generation jails?

...

What type of jail has the correctional officer's station located inside a secure room?

...

Which of the following statements best describes correctional technology?

...

Joliet and the "The Rock" were examples of what type of prison?

Maximum Security Prison

The primary purpose of a maximum-security prison is:

Designed to eliminate hidden corners where people can congratgate and passages are constructed so that they can be easily blocked off to quell distubances

Prison farms and camps are found primarily in what section of the country?

South and West

Shock incarceration programs generally last how long?

90-180 days

Shock incarceration is generally designed with what target population in mind?

Youth, first time offenders

The U.S. Correctional Corporation opened its first private prison in what state?

Kentucky

Private prisons have the unique advantage of ?

Lower costs?

One day in prison costs more than ____ day(s) on parole

10 days

Approximately ____ percent of the young male African American population without a high school diploma or GED are currently behind bars

37%

The inmate population in the US has __________ despite a decade long crime drop.

remained stable

The majority of inmates the U.S are _____?

Youth male, minority and poor?

Which of the following is a factor that helps contribute to swelling prison populations?

...

Which of the following is true regarding future prison trends?

...

The fact that prisons have inmates locked within their walls, are under constant scrutiny, and are forced to obey rules refers to the concept of:

total institution

What is the most typical emotion felt by most inmates during the early part of their prison stay?

Depression?

What factor is said to have precipitated the "new" inmate culture?

Importation of outside values into the inmate culture

In the "new" inmate culture;

African American and Latino are much more cohesively organizes than whites

What was the predominant societal view of female inmates at the turn of the 20th century?

Morally depraved people who flouted conventional rules of female behavior

Which model allows private companies to set up manufacturing units on prison grounds or purchase goods made by inmates in shops owned and operated by the corrections department?

Prison Farms and Camps

What is the most common outcome for children when a single mother is sent to prison?

Father/grandparent, family friend or foster car(10%)

Research has shown that inmates involved in this type of correctional treatment do better following release than those in comparison groups.

Faith based programs

Which of the following is not true about the sexual exploitation of female inmates?

True:
- females get sexually abused by male correctional workers

The desire for warm stable relationships that are otherwise unobtainable in the prison environment often leads the female inmate to:

Make believe family

What is one commonly used method for treating drug-dependant inmates in today's prisons

-12 step groups(Narcotics or Alcoholics Anonymous)
-(Cognitive Behavioral) Counseling
-Therapeutic Communities

What type of treatment program has flourished under the Bush administration?

Faith based rehabilitation

The first prison treatment programs in the United States were

Educational, prison schools

What is the best estimate of the rate of HIV infection among state and federal prison inmates?

2% : 25,000 inmates

Which of the following is NOT a common form of inmate vocational program in use today?

-Vocational Training
-Work Release
-Private Prison Enterprise
-Post-release Programs

In adapting to a female institution a common practice is;

Self-mutilation or carving

Which of the following is not a factor contributing to individual violence in prison?

Factors:
- History of prior violence
- Age
- Psychological factors
- Prison conditions
- Lack of dispute resolution mechanisms
- Basic survival

Which theory of collective inmate violence attributes the problem to abrupt crackdowns or changes in inmate freedoms that are implemented by prison administrators?

Inmate-balance theory

The "hands-off doctrine" refers to:

8t amendment
- Legal practice of allowing prison administrators a free hand to run the institution even if correctional practices violate inmates constitutional rights

According to the ____ theory, collective violence may also be caused by prison mismanagement, lack of strong security, and inadequate control of prison officials.

Administrative-Control Theory

What was the most widely used device or legislation to bring prisoners' complaints before state and federal courts in the late 1960s?

Civil Rights Act, 42 U.S.C. 1983

Courts have ruled that inmates are entitled to have legal materials and resources available to assist them in filing complaints, this includes?

...

Which case forced corrections department to upgrade prison medical facilities?

Newman v. Alabama

Withholding medical treatment is a violation of the ____ Constitutional Amendment

8th

In recent years, the view of correctional officers has changed to;

...

Which of the following statements is false about the effectiveness of parole?

True:
- Many return to prison
- Remain uneducated and unskilled
- Do not have a solid family support

Which of the following factors has been linked to recidivism?

all of the above

Which of the following is a NOT a right that is lost by convicted felons?

-Medical
-Religion
-Press and Expression
-Access to courts, legal services, and materials
-Cruel and unusual punishment
- Racial Segregation

In which 1994 case did the court rule that prison officials are legally liable if, knowing that an inmate faces a serious risk of harm, they disregard that risk by failing to take measures to avoid or reduce it?

Farmer v. Brennan

Which of the following is not believed to be a reason that people fail on parole?

Reasons:
- Economic Problems
- Community Problems
- Family Problems
- Legal Problems

The juvenile justice system developed as a result of?

Poor laws ad chancery courts

The modern practice of legally separating adult criminals and juvenile offenders can be traced back to two developments in English custom and law that occurred centuries ago, one of which is/are

- Development of Elizabethan era poor laws
- Creation of the English chancery courts

When did the House of Refuge in New York first open?

1849

Which 19th century program was similar to a modern foster home?

Children's Aid Society

In its early form, what was the burden of proof for verdicts handed down by the juvenile court?

Verdicts based on "preponderance of the evidence"

Modern development of legally separating adult and juvenile offenders can be traced to two developments in English custom law, one is?

Poor laws and Chancery courts

The approach of the early American juvenile court is best described as:

"best interest for the child"
court was paternalistic

What impact did the Supreme Court have on the juvenile justice system in the 1960s and 1970s?

Due process of law
Juveniles had the same rights as adults in important areas of trial process including:
- the right to confront a witness
-notice of charges
-right to counsel`

The juvenile court labels ungovernable, habitually disobedient, and truant children to be:

Status offenders

Which of the following is a difference between juvenile and adult justice systems?

Adult has a stronger rehab program

About how many juvenile cases are processed and treated each year?

1.6 million

Which type of case is most likely to be referred to the juvenile court by the police officer

Case involving violence

What is considered to be the most difficult problem involving incriminatory statements made by juveniles during the course of police questioning?

...

What term refers to the screening of cases by the juvenile justice system

intake

What is the most common formal sentence for juveniles?

release to parental custody

An adjustment for a juvenile is comparable to a(n) ____ for an adult

plea bargain

Once a juvenile has been taken into custody, the child has the same ____ Amendment rights to be free from unreasonable searches and seizures as an adult does.

4th

Which of the following best explains the recent surge in the number of juvenile detentions?

all the above, juveniles

A __________ is used when the offense has been automatically waived to the adult court but the judge uses their discretion to decide the youth will benefit from rehabilitation?

...

In which case did the Court hold that the waiver proceeding is a critically important stage in the juvenile justice process and that juveniles must be afforded minimum requirements of due process of law at such proceedings?

Kent v. United States

Which judicial hearing in the juvenile court process is similar to arraignment in the adult system?

Initial Appearance

Under what system does the prosecutor have the discretion of filing charges for certain legislatively designated offenses in either juvenile or criminal court?

All States allow juveniles to be tried as adults in criminal court under certain circumstances. In many States, the legislature statutorily excludes certain (usually serious) offenses from the jurisdiction of the juvenile court regardless of the age of the accused. In some States and at the Federal level under certain circumstances, prosecutors have the discretion to either file criminal charges against juveniles directly in criminal courts or proceed through the juvenile justice process. The juvenile court's intake department or the prosecutor may petition the juvenile court to waive jurisdiction to criminal court. The juvenile court also may order referral to criminal court for trial as adults. In some jurisdictions, juveniles processed as adults may upon conviction be sentenced to either an adult or a juvenile facility.

What happens during the fact-finding hearing?

Evidence is heard

What was the legal standard for a warrantless search of a school locker in New Jersey v. TLO?

...

What is the most commonly used formal sentence for juvenile offenders?

Release to parental custody

Which of the following best describes a recent reform of juvenile sentencing?

A. Some jurisdictions have passed mandatory or determinate incarceration sentences for juveniles convicted of serious felonies.
B .Making a concerted effort to remove status offenders from the juvenile justice system and restrict their entry into institutional programs.
C. Effort to standardize dispositions in juvenile court.
D. All of these represent recent reforms related to juvenile sentencing

D

Deinstitutionalization efforts are principally focused on which type of offenses?

...

What stage in the juvenile justice process is designed to help youths make the transition from residential or institutional settings back into the community?

Aftercare

Most juvenile aftercare involves:

Parole

Bernard Madoff, Bear Stearn, and Lehman Brothers all have committed this type of crime

Corporate Enterprise Crime

One new crime trend facing the justice system is?

-corporate enterprise crime
-green crime
-cyber crime
-transnational organized crime

According to your text a _______ is an investment fraud that involves the payment of purported returns to existing investors from funds contributed by new investors

Ponzi Scheme

One major issue with the Subprime Mortgage Scandal was that;

they carry risk
mortgage companies experienced financial distress and bankruptcy??

Subprime lenders made risky loans;

assuming that real estate values would always be increasing, allowing borrowers to refinance or sell their properties before going into default

The detection and enforcement of large scale corporate crime is primarily in the hands of?

Special task forces and prosecution teams are made by the sates

_______are violations of existing criminal laws designed to protect people, the environment or both

Green Crime

Worldwide, estimates for illegal logging activities account for products worth at least ______ per year?

15 billion

Illegal fishing is criminalized because fishermen are

Fishing in other country's waters; causing endangerment because they are not being regulated

Enforcing environmental laws including the Clean Water Act of 1972 is done by?

The EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

Transnational Crime groups are often involved in;

-drug trafficking
-human trafficking and prostitution
-terror campaigns
-killing police officers
-white collar crimes

One reason it has proven difficult for law enforcement to combat drug cartels is

They use their firepower to intimidate police, judges and potential witnesses

Federal legislation that enables prosecutors to bring additional criminal or civil charges against people engaged in 2 or more acts prohibited by 24 existing federal and 8 state laws

Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organization Act (RICO)

Underground criminal societies based on Hong Kong control secret markets, bus routes, and are often involved in money laundering and drug trafficking

Triads

Which United Nations agency is charged with addressing labor standards, employment and social protection issues and often finds themselves dealing with human trafficking issues?

Southeast European Cooperative Initiative??

Afghanistan now supplies ___ of the world's opium leaving the potential for eradicating global crime difficult.

a significant percentage

Cyber crime is challenging because:

-Rapidly evolving with new schemes
-It is difficult to detect through traditional law enforcement channels
-To control it, agents of the justice system must develop technical skills

____ is the use of computer networks for undermining the social, economic, and political system of an enemy through the destruction of infrastructure.

Cyber crime

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