Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

What are the three layers of the detrusor muscle?

Longitudinal
Spiral
Circular

What sensory receptors are present in the detrusor muscle? What nerves does it relay to (and spinal routes) and what NT/NTR?

Stretch
Sympathetic - L1 to L3
Pelvic N, pudendal and hypogastric
ACh and nAChR

What are the spinal routes of the somatic motorneurones innervating the external urethral sphincter? What may it also be influenced by (and when?)

S2-S4
Higher centres - micturition/storage centre
Constricts internal urethral sphincter during ejaculation

What is the parasympathetic innervation of the detrusor muscle? What NT/NTR? What is the outcome of stimulation?

S2-S4
contract detrusor via mAChR (M3)
Inhibits internal sphincter

What is bladder filling stimulated by? ANd how is it aided? What can obstructions cause?

Stretch
Peristaltic waves - 1 to 5 per minute
Renal Colic (can cause abdominal pain)

What graph may be used to measure micturition? At what volume do you have a strong urge to go? At what volume is the micturition reflex (and why does this occur?)

Cystometogram (P/V)
200ml
400ml - bladder near elastic limit

Why is the cystometogram flat?

p=2t/r
radius increases due to the storage reflex, so pressure doesn't increase by much

Describe the storage reflex?

Stretch detectors stimulated
Relax to sympathetic
Relaxes detrusor
Constricts I.U.S
Somatic neurone also stimulated (constricts external s)

Describe the micturition reflex?

Stretch receptors fire rapidly as tension increases
Information spent to pons (spinal cord)
- bladder fullness
- desire to go
parasympathetic input to bladder wall - contracts detrusor and relaxes I.sphincter
Somatic motor neurone is inhibited
Not a passive process - peristaltic waves

What are the three levels of control which an adult demonstrates?

1. Inhibition of reflex pathway
2. Increase tone of E.S.
3. Contraction of levator Ani/levator ani - supports base of bladder and reduces stretch

How is micturition initiated?

Contraction of diaphragm and abdo muscles (increases P)
Relax pelvic floor muscles (pulls bladder downwards)
Activity in higher centres - Pons

How is micturition maintained?

Receptors continue to discharge even though detrusor contracts
Flow of urine through the urethra causes reflex detrusor contraction and sphincter relaxation
Contraction of muscles helps expulsion

What happens to micturition after spinal cord damage?

Stretch receptors abnormally sensitive after damage - stimulates detrusor contraction
Motor neurones supplying ES activated
- inefficient bladder emptying
- detrusor-sphincter dysnergia

What are the problems associated with IBE?

- Retention of UTI
- May go up kidney and cause renal failure
- High pressure in urinary system

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set